Andrew R. DiNardo

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Toxoplasma encephalitis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TE-IRIS) is rare and usually occurs in an unmasking, rather than paradoxical form. To the best of our knowledge, only two cases of paradoxical TE-IRIS and nine cases of unmasking TE-IRIS have been previously described. We present two additional cases of histopathology-consistent(More)
BACKGROUND As access to Xpert expands in high TB-burden settings, its performance against clinically diagnosed TB as a reference standard provides important insight as the majority of childhood TB is bacteriologically unconfirmed. We aim to describe the characteristics and outcomes of children with presumptive TB and TB disease, and assess performance of(More)
INTRODUCTION Our objective is to understand how HIV infection increases the risk of progression from latent tuberculosis (TB) to active disease. We understand now that immunity is a balance of competing immune responses by multiple cell types. Since T-lymphocyte production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens(More)
BACKGROUND The Xpert MTB/RIF (MTB/RIF) test has advanced the field of tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics; however, depending on age and HIV status, 10-85% of individuals with presumed pulmonary TB (PTB) are unable to produce sputum. METHODS The feasibility of using MTB/RIF and culture on stool and string test specimens from 13 adult patients with presumed PTB(More)
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