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OBJECTIVE The deleterious effects of glutamate excitotoxicity are well described for central nervous system gray matter. Although overactivation of glutamate receptors also contributes to axonal injury, the mechanisms are poorly understood. Our goal was to elucidate the mechanisms of kainate receptor-dependent axonal Ca(2+) deregulation. METHODS Dorsal(More)
Multiple protein tyrosine kinases regulate neurite outgrowth in the developing nervous system. To begin to unravel the complexity of this regulation, we addressed the role of one specific kinase, pp60(c-src), in chick dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons grown on laminin-1, a well-characterized system to study neurite outgrowth. Pharmacological inhibition of(More)
Polymorphisms in the interleukin-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4R alpha) have been linked to asthma incidence and severity, but a causal relationship has remained uncertain. In particular, a glutamine to arginine substitution at position 576 (Q576R) of IL-4R alpha has been associated with severe asthma, especially in African Americans. We show that mice(More)
The macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) regulates proliferation and differentiation of cells belonging to the monocytic lineage. We have investigated the nature and origin of the proliferation and differentiation signals derived from the M-CSF receptor (Fms) by mutating Fms at the four tyrosine autophosphorylation sites and examining their(More)
The neural retina is a critical component of the visual system, which provides the majority of sensory input in humans. Various retinal degenerative diseases can result in the permanent loss of retinal neurons, especially the light-sensing photoreceptors and the centrally projecting retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The replenishment of lost RGCs and the(More)
Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), a secreted cytokine, plays an important role in inflammatory diseases and immune disorders, and is a potential target for drug development. The traditional assays for detecting TNF-α, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay, are not suitable for the large size compound screens. Both assays suffer from(More)
Gamma rays with energy above 10 GeV interact with optical-UV photons resulting in pair production. Therefore, a large sample of high redshift sources of these gamma rays can be used to probe the extragalactic background starlight (EBL) by examining the redshift dependence of the attenuation of the flux above 10 GeV. GLAST, the next generation high-energy(More)
The mammalian proprotein convertase subtilisin kexins (PCSKs) previously called proprotein or prohormone convertases (PCs) are a family of Ca(+2)-dependent endoproteases in the subtilisin family. These proteolytic enzymes exert their many crucial physiological and biological functions in vivo via their ability to cleave larger inactive precursor proteins(More)
A highly integrated 4.9-5.9 GHz single chip front-end IC (FEIC) is presented, which is based on SiGe BiCMOS, realized in a 1.6 mm2 chip area and in an ultra-compact 1.7 × 2.0 × 0.33 mm3 package. The Tx chain has >30 dB gain and meets -40 dB DEVM up to Pout of 15 dBm and -35 dB DEVM up to Pout of 17 dBm with a 3.3 V supply, insensitive to(More)