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The activity of the DAF-2 insulin-like receptor is required for Caenorhabditis elegans reproductive growth and normal adult life span. Informatic analysis identified 37 C. elegans genes predicted to encode insulin-like peptides. Many of these genes are divergent insulin superfamily members, and many are clustered, indicating recent diversification of the(More)
The importance of p53 in carcinogenesis stems from its central role in inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in response to cellular stresses. We have identified a Drosophila homolog of p53 ("Dmp53"). Like mammalian p53, Dmp53 binds specifically to human p53 binding sites, and overexpression of Dmp53 induces apoptosis. Importantly, inhibition of Dmp53(More)
GRF2, an abundant yeast protein of Mr approximately 127,000, binds to the GAL upstream activating sequence (UASG) and creates a nucleosome-free region of approximately 230 bp. Purified GRF2 binds to sequences found in many other UASs, in the 35S rRNA enhancer, at centromeres, and at telomeres. Although GRF2 stimulates transcription only slightly on its own,(More)
Two DNA-binding factors from Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been characterized, GRFI (general regulatory factor I) and ABFI (ARS-binding factor I), that recognize specific sequences within diverse genetic elements. GRFI bound to sequences at the negative regulatory elements (silencers) of the silent mating type loci HML E and HMR E and to the upstream(More)
In a screen for DNA repair-defective mutants in the fungus Ustilago maydis, a gene encoding a BRCA2 family member, designated here as Brh2, was identified. A brh2 null allele was found to be defective in allelic recombination, meiosis, and repair of gaps and ionizing radiation damage to the same extent as rad51. Frequent marker loss in meiosis and diploid(More)
ABFI (ARS-binding protein I) is a yeast protein that binds specific DNA sequences associated with several autonomously replicating sequences (ARSs). ABFI also binds sequences located in promoter regions of some yeast genes, including DED1, an essential gene of unknown function that is transcribed constitutively at a high level. ABFI was purified by specific(More)
DNA in eukaryotic cells is packed in tandem repeats of nucleosomes or higher-order chromatin structures, which present obstacles to many cellular processes that require protein-DNA interactions, such as transcription, DNA repair, and recombination. To find proteins that are involved in increasing the accessibility of specific DNA regions in yeast, we used a(More)
Recombinant simian virus 40 viruses carrying rabbit beta-globin cDNA failed to express the beta-globin sequence unless an intron was included in the transcription unit. The addition of either beta-globin IVS1 or IVS2 caused a 400-fold increase in RNA production. Stable beta-globin RNA production required sequences in IVS2 that were very close to the splice(More)
The in vivo packaging of DNA with histone proteins to form chromatin makes its transcription a difficult process. Biochemical and genetic studies are beginning to reveal mechanistic details of how transcriptional regulatory factors confront at least two hurdles created by nucleosomes, the primary structural unit of chromatin. Regulatory factors must gain(More)
The GAL80 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, synthesized in vitro, bound tightly to GAL4 protein and to a GAL4 protein-upstream activation sequence DNA complex, as shown by (i) coimmunoprecipitation of GAL4 and GAL80 proteins with anti-GAL4 antiserum, (ii) an electrophoretic mobility shift of a GAL4 protein-upstream activation sequence DNA complex upon(More)