Learn More
Progranulin (Pgrn) is a pluripotent secreted growth factor that mediates cell cycle progression and cell motility. It activates the extracellular regulated kinases and phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase signal cascades, among others, and increases expression of cyclins D and B. Structurally, it belongs to none of the well-established growth factor families. It(More)
Growth-regulated cells, such as 3T3 mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs), require more than one growth factor for growth, usually the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in combination with either platelet-derived growth factor or epidermal growth factor. Singly, these growth factors cannot sustain the growth of 3T3 cells. However, if the IGF-I receptor(More)
Annually, 1.25 million individuals suffer burns in the United States and 6.5 million experience chronic skin ulcers, often from diabetes, pressure or venous stasis. Growth factors are essential mediators of wound repair, but their success as therapeutics in wound treatment has, so far, been limited. Therefore, there is a need to identify new wound-response(More)
Granulins, also called epithelins, are 6-kD peptides with growth modulatory effects on a variety of cells. The granulin/epithelin precursor supports tumorigenesis in appropriate cell models and is the only growth factor able to overcome the cell cycle block that occurs in murine fibroblasts after deletion of a functional IGF-1 receptor. However, little is(More)
The growth factor progranulin (PGRN) regulates cell division, survival, and migration. PGRN is an extracellular glycoprotein bearing multiple copies of the cysteine-rich granulin motif. With PGRN family members in plants and slime mold, it represents one of the most ancient of the extracellular regulatory proteins still extant in modern animals. PRGN has(More)
Progranulin is a 593-amino acid glycoprotein, the mRNA of which is expressed by many epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo, but the biological significance of this expression is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that overexpression of the progranulin gene in SW-13 adrenal carcinoma cells and MDCK nontransformed renal epithelia results in the(More)
Granulins are candidate growth factors recently discovered in human and rat inflammatory leukocytes and bone marrow. Two granulin homologs, epithelin 1 and 2, occur in the rat kidney. Epithelin 1, which is probably identical to rat leukocyte granulin, exhibits proliferative and antiproliferative effects on epithelial cells in vitro. Here we show by cDNA(More)
The growth factor progranulin (acrogranin/PC-derived growth factor/granulin-epithelin precursor) promotes onset of blastocyst cavitation and is required for neonatal hypothalamic sexual differentiation. Little is known, however, of the range of developmental processes in which it is involved. We used in situ hybridization to investigate progranulin(More)
We report the isolation and characterization of a novel class of leukocyte peptides with possible cytokine-like activities which we call granulins. They are cystine-rich with molecular weights of approximately 6 Kda, except for granulin D, which appears to be a dimer. We present the sequence of one member of this family, a 56 residue peptide, granulin A,(More)