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Classical molecular dynamics simulations of several aqueous alkali halide salt solutions have been used to determine the effect of electrolytes on the structure of water and the hydration properties of calcium ions. Compared with the simulations of Ca(2+) ions in pure liquid water, the frequency of water exchange in the first hydration shell of calcium,(More)
The magnetic microstructure of a natural, finely exsolved intergrowth of submicron magnetite blocks in an ulvöspinel matrix is characterized by using off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope. Single-domain and vortex states in individual blocks, as well as magnetostatic interaction fields between them, are imaged at a spatial(More)
A selection of recent results illustrating the application of off-axis electron holography to the study of magnetic microstructure in closely-spaced nanoparticles and nanowires is reviewed. Examples are taken from the characterization of FeNi nanoparticle chains, Co nanoparticle rings, two-dimensional arrays of naturally occurring magnetite crystals in(More)
Structural phase transformations in Ni(7)S(6) and Cu(7)S(4) have been observed dynamically by in situ experiments in a transmission electron microscope. In this way it is possible to demonstrate the possibility of two fundamentally different types of behavior: (i) the ideal transformation from the stable high-temperature form to the stable low-temperature(More)
Spicules of calcareous sponges are elaborately shaped skeletal elements that nonetheless show characteristics of calcite single-crystals. Our atomic force microscopic and transmission electron microscopic investigation of the triradiate spicules of the sponge Pericharax heteroraphis reveals a nano-cluster structure with mostly well-aligned small crystal(More)
Unraveling the kinetics of calcium orthophosphate (Ca-P) precipitation and dissolution is important for our understanding of the transformation and mobility of dissolved phosphate species in soils. Here we use an in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) coupled with a fluid reaction cell to study the interaction of phosphate-bearing solutions with calcite(More)
Large-scale olivine carbonation has been proposed as a potential method for sequestering CO(2) emissions. For in situ carbonation techniques, understanding the relationship between the formation of carbonate and other phases is important to predict the impact of possible passivating layers on the reaction. Therefore, we have conducted reactions of olivine(More)
Pure calcium carbonate (calcite and aragonite) solid materials of different particle size (100-200 microm fragments and millimeter-sized single crystals) were interacted with Pb in aqueous solutions at room temperature under atmospheric PCO2. In the case of the micrometer-sized samples, the macroscopic investigation using a batch-type treatment procedure(More)
The study of nucleation and growth mechanisms of salts from aqueous solutions, as a function of supersaturation, is described using both macroscopic and microscopic experiments. In situ observations in a fluid cell in an atomic force microscope (AFM) reveal phenomena not accounted for in standard crystal-growth theories, specifically on the role of the(More)