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Microelectromagnet devices, a ring trap and a matrix, were developed for the microscopic control of biological systems. The ring trap is a circular Au wire with an insulator on top. The matrix has two arrays of straight Au wires, one array perpendicular to the other, that are separated and topped by insulating layers. Microelectromagnets can produce strong(More)
We have presented a case of fetal intrauterine enterovirus (coxsackievirus A) infection at 36 weeks' gestation. Viral infection should be suspected when there is a history compatible with viral illness in the mother during pregnancy. Although an increased level of IgM antibodies in cord blood suggests a previous intrauterine infection, the diagnosis of(More)
Micromanipulation of magnetotactic bacteria with a microelectromagnet matrix was demonstrated. Magnetotactic bacteria synthesize a chain of magnetic nanoparticles inside their body to guide their motion in the geomagnetic field. A microelectromagnet matrix consists of two arrays of lithographically patterned wires, one array perpendicular to the other, that(More)
A randomized, nonblinded study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of a single 2-g oral dose of metronidazole (Flagyl) versus a seven-day regimen in the treatment of "nonspecific" vaginitis. Using cultures for Gardnerella vaginalis, 14 (67%) of 21 women treated with the single 2-g dose and 19 (86%) of 21 women receiving the seven-day course were(More)
Contradictory findings among scientific studies that address a particular issue may impede the conversion of science to management implementation. A systematic review of peer-reviewed studies to generate a single outcome may overcome this problem. The contentious topic of the impact that a megaherbivore such as the savanna elephant have for other species(More)
Savannas once constituted the range of many species that human encroachment has now reduced to a fraction of their former distribution. Many survive only in protected areas. Poaching reduces the savanna elephant, even where protected, likely to the detriment of savanna ecosystems. While resources go into estimating elephant populations, an ecological(More)
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