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Microelectromagnet devices, a ring trap and a matrix, were developed for the microscopic control of biological systems. The ring trap is a circular Au wire with an insulator on top. The matrix has two arrays of straight Au wires, one array perpendicular to the other, that are separated and topped by insulating layers. Microelectromagnets can produce strong(More)
Micromanipulation of magnetotactic bacteria with a microelectromagnet matrix was demonstrated. Magnetotactic bacteria synthesize a chain of magnetic nanoparticles inside their body to guide their motion in the geomagnetic field. A microelectromagnet matrix consists of two arrays of lithographically patterned wires, one array perpendicular to the other, that(More)
Savannas once constituted the range of many species that human encroachment has now reduced to a fraction of their former distribution. Many survive only in protected areas. Poaching reduces the savanna elephant, even where protected, likely to the detriment of savanna ecosystems. While resources go into estimating elephant populations, an ecological(More)
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