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Estrogen levels in breast tumors of post-menopausal women are as much as 10 times higher than estrogen levels in plasma, presumably due to in situ formation of estrogen. The major source of estrogen in breast cancer cells may be conversion of estrone sulfate to estrone by the enzyme estrone sulfatase. Thus, inhibitors of estrone sulfatase have potential for(More)
Immunoglobulin (Ig) genes are hypermutated in B lymphocytes that are the precursors to memory B cells. The mutations are linked to transcription initiation, but non-Ig promoters are permissible for the mutation process; thus, other genes expressed in mutating B cells may also be subject to somatic hypermutation. Significant mutations were not observed in(More)
Deletions at 22q11.2 are linked to DiGeorge or velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), whose hallmarks include heart, limb, and craniofacial anomalies, as well as learning disabilities and increased incidence of schizophrenia. To assess the potential contribution of 22q11 genes to cognitive and psychiatric phenotypes, we determined the CNS expression of 32 mouse(More)
Six genes in the 1.5 Mb region of chromosome 22 deleted in DiGeorge/22q11 deletion syndrome-Mrpl40, Prodh, Slc25a1, Txnrd2, T10, and Zdhhc8-encode mitochondrial proteins. All six genes are expressed in the brain, and maximal expression coincides with peak forebrain synaptogenesis shortly after birth. Furthermore, their protein products are associated with(More)
We asked whether specific mesenchymal/epithelial (M/E) induction generates olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), vomeronasal neurons (VRNs), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, the major neuron classes associated with the olfactory epithelium (OE). To assess specificity of M/E-mediated neurogenesis, we compared the influence of frontonasal(More)
Molecular biological and immunocytochemical data demonstrate nonhomologous crossing-over between the closely linked vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) genes in rat hypothalamic neuroendocrine neurons. Reverse transcription of hypothalamic total RNA from wild-type or homozygous Brattleboro aged rats combined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)(More)
Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) regulate coagulation and inflammation. Heparin, a glycosaminoglycan, is an important cofactor for modulation of the inhibitory function of mammalian serpins. The secreted myxoma viral serpin, Serp-1 exerts profound anti-inflammatory activity in a wide range of animal models. Serp-1 anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic(More)
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