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The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC) is implicated in affective and motivated behaviors. Damage to this region, which includes the orbitofrontal cortex as well as ventral sectors of medial PFC, causes profound changes in emotional and social behavior, including impairments in certain aspects of decision making. One reinforcement mechanism that may well(More)
Central to many emotional responses is the accompanying peripheral somatic and autonomic arousal, feedback from which has been hypothesized to enhance emotional memory and to contribute to appraisal processes and decision making, and dysfunction of which may contribute to antisocial behaviour. Whilst peripheral arousal may accompany both positive and(More)
Two learning mechanisms contribute to decision-making: goal-directed actions and the "habit" system, by which action-outcome and stimulus-response associations are formed, respectively. Rodent lesion studies and human neuroimaging have implicated both the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the neural basis of contingency(More)
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