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1. To study the importance of cardiac innervation in the regulation of atrial natriuretic peptide, plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels were measured during symptom-limited, graded exercise on a cycle ergometer in seven male orthotopic cardiac transplant recipients. 2. Resting plasma atrial natriuretic peptide was significantly higher in the transplant(More)
OBJECTIVE In this study we attempted to learn why childbearing adolescents failed to use contraceptives prior to conception. We hypothesized that among adolescents who elect to bear their children, positive and/or ambivalent feelings about having a baby are the most frequently cited reasons for not having used contraceptives. STUDY DESIGN This is a(More)
The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is prevalent worldwide and can infect a remarkably wide range of hosts despite felids being the only definitive host. As cats play a major role in transmission to secondary mammalian hosts, the interaction between cats and these hosts should be a major factor determining final prevalence in the secondary host. This(More)
The cardiac denervation produced by heart transplantation modifies the physiological response to exercise. The cardiorespiratory and sympathoadrenal response of seven "healthy" orthotopic heart transplant recipients was compared to seven age matched normal subjects during progressive dynamic exercise. The initial venous noradrenaline concentration tended to(More)
In East Africa, animal trypanosomiasis is caused by many tsetse transmitted protozoan parasites including Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense and subspecies of T. brucei s.l. (T. b. brucei and zoonotic human infective T. b. rhodesiense) that may co-circulate in domestic and wild animals. Accurate species-specific prevalence measurements of these parasites in(More)
Direct PCR analysis of trypanosome infected blood samples in the quantities required for large scale epidemiological study has always been problematic. Current methods for identifying and differentiating trypanosomes typically require several species-specific reactions, many of which rely on mouse passaged samples to obtain quality concentrated genomic DNA.(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Core group theory describes the central role of groups with high rates of sexual partner change in HIV transmission. Research illustrates the heterogeneous and dynamic nature of commercial sex, and that some men involved in the organisation or policing of sex work regularly have sex with sex workers. These findings are used to(More)
BACKGROUND There is urgent need for effective HIV prevention methods that women can initiate. The CAPRISA 004 trial showed that a tenofovir-based vaginal microbicide had significant impact on HIV incidence among women. This study uses the trial findings to estimate the population-level impact of the gel on HIV and HSV-2 transmission, and price thresholds at(More)
OBJECTIVES This study simulates the potential impact of male circumcision and female microbicide interventions, singularly and in combination, in rural Uganda. METHODS A dynamic model was parameterised and fitted to setting-specific data, and used to estimate the impact on HIV transmission of a microbicide and/or male circumcision intervention over 15(More)
Active case detection through mass community screening is a major control strategy against human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness) caused by T. brucei gambiense. However, its impact can be limited by incomplete attendance at screening sessions (screening coverage) and diagnostic inaccuracy. We developed a model-based approach to estimate the(More)