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For temperate endotherms (i.e., mammals and birds) energy costs are highest during winter but food availability is lowest and many mammals depend on hibernation as a result. Hibernation is made up of energy-saving torpor bouts [periods of controlled reduction in body temperature (T b)], which are interrupted by brief periodic arousals to normothermic T b.(More)
This paper presents a social agent pedestrian model based on experiments with human subjects. Research studies of criminology and environmental psychology show that certain features of the urban environment generate fear in people, causing them to take alternate routes. The Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) strategy has been implemented(More)
BACKGROUND Teratogen information services have been developed around the world to disseminate information regarding the safety of maternal exposures during pregnancy. The Motherisk Program in Toronto, Canada, fields thousands of these inquiries per year. Our primary objective was to evaluate the perception and utilization of information received from us by(More)
Host behavior can affect host-pathogen dynamics, and sociality is predicted to increase risk of pathogen exposure. Many species minimize costs of parasitism by only aggregating seasonally, such as during reproductive periods, but colonial species may still be limited in their potential to evade pathogens. Bats are among the most gregarious mammals and(More)
We describe the general foraging task, breaking it into two different subtasks: map-making and collection. Map-making is a task in which a map is constructed which contains the location(s) of an item or of items in the search area. Collection is the task in which an item is picked up and carried back to a central known location. We theoretically examine(More)
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