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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The P2X receptor family consists of seven subunit types - P2X1-P2X7. All but P2X6 are able to assemble as homotrimers. In addition, various subunit permutations have been reported to form heterotrimers. Evidence for heterotrimer formation includes co-localization, co-immunoprecipitation and the generation of receptors with novel(More)
There is evidence that polycystin-2 (TRPP2) interacts with two other members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family, TRPC1 and TRPV4. We have previously shown that TRPP2 forms a heteromeric complex with TRPC1, with a 2:2 stoichiometry and an alternating subunit arrangement. Here, we used coimmunoprecipitation to show that TRPP2 also interacts with(More)
Voltage-gated K(+) channels composed of Kv7.2 and Kv7.3 are the predominant contributors to the M-current, which plays a key role in controlling neuronal activity. Various lines of evidence have indicated that Kv7.2 and Kv7.3 form a heteromeric channel. However, the subunit stoichiometry and arrangement within this putative heteromer are so far unknown.(More)
The sigma-1 receptor (Sig1R) is up-regulated in many human tumors and plays a role in the control of cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness. At the molecular level, the Sig1R modulates the activity of various ion channels, apparently through a direct interaction. We have previously shown using atomic force microscopy imaging that the Sig1R binds to the(More)
There has been confusion about the subunit stoichiometry of the degenerin family of ion channels. Recently, a crystal structure of acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) 1a revealed that it assembles as a trimer. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image unprocessed ASIC1a bound to mica. We detected a mixture of subunit monomers, dimers and trimers. In(More)
The σ-1 receptor (Sig1R) is widely expressed in the CNS, where it has a neuroprotective role in ischemia and stroke and an involvement in schizophrenia. The Sig1R interacts functionally with a variety of ion channels, including the NMDA receptor (NMDAR). Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging to investigate the interaction between the Sig1R and(More)
The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a member of the ENaC/degenerin superfamily. ENaC is a heteromultimer containing three homologous subunits (α, β, and γ); however, the subunit stoichiometry is still controversial. Here, we addressed this issue using atomic force microscopy imaging of complexes between isolated ENaC and antibodies/Fab fragments(More)
Several members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily have been shown to assemble as tetramers. Here we have determined the subunit stoichiometry of the transient receptor potential M8 (TRPM8) channel using atomic force microscopy (AFM). TRPM8 channels were isolated from transfected cells, and complexes were formed between the(More)
Ionotropic glutamate receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system and play a major role in excitatory synaptic transmission. All three ionotropic glutamate subfamilies (i.e. AMPA-type, kainate-type, and NMDA-type) assemble as tetramers of four homologous subunits. There is good evidence that both heteromeric AMPA and kainate receptors have(More)
Seven P2X purinergic receptor subunits have been identified: P2X1-P2X7. The overlapping expression of P2X2, P2X4 and P2X6 subunits has been shown in different cell types, and functional analysis of P2X receptors in Leydig cells suggests that the three subunits might interact. Here, His6-tagged P2X2, HA-tagged P2X4 and FLAG-tagged P2X6 subunits were(More)