Andrew P. Somlyo

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Ca2+ sensitivity of smooth muscle and nonmuscle myosin II reflects the ratio of activities of myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) to myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) and is a major, regulated determinant of numerous cellular processes. We conclude that the majority of phenotypes attributed to the monomeric G protein RhoA and mediated by its effector,(More)
We here review mechanisms that can regulate the activity of myosin II, in smooth muscle and non-muscle cells, by modulating the Ca2+ sensitivity of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation. The major mechanism of Ca2+ sensitization of smooth muscle contraction and non-muscle cell motility is through inhibition of the smooth muscle myosin(More)
The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was studied in the smooth muscles of rabbit main pulmonary artery, mesenteric vein, aorta, mesenteric artery, taenia coli, guinea pig mesenteric artery, and human uterus, and correlated with contractions of the smooth muscles in Ca-free media. SR volumes were determined in main pulmonary artery (5.1%), aorta (5%),(More)
The effects of the Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y-27632 [1] on Ca2+-sensitization of force induced by arachidonic acid (AA), phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), GTPgammaS, and by the stable thromboxane analog, 9,11-dideoxy-9alpha,11alpha-methanoepoxy-PGF2alpha (U-46619), were determined in alpha-toxin-permeabilized smooth muscles. Y-27632 relaxed (up to 99%)(More)
Phosphatase inhibitors microcystin-LR, tautomycin, and okadaic acid caused contraction and increased 20-kDa myosin light chain (MLC20) phosphorylation in Ca(2+)-free solutions in both phasic and tonic smooth muscle permeabilized with beta-escin, and inhibited the heavy meromyosin (HMM) phosphatase activity of smooth muscle homogenates with the same potency(More)
Electron probe analysis, cryo-ultramicrotomy, and freeze-substitution were used to determine the nature of vacuolation and the subcellular composition in fatigued frog skeletal muscle fibers. The vacuoles caused by fatigue were part of the T-tubule system and contained high concentrations of NaCl. The calcium concentration in the terminal cisternae was(More)
Lipoma preferred partner (LPP) has been identified as a protein highly expressed in smooth muscle (SM) tissues. The aim of the present study was to determine mechanisms that regulate LPP expression in an in vitro model of SM cell (SMC) differentiation and in stent-induced pig coronary vessel injury. All trans-retinoic acid treatment of A404 cells induced a(More)