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Following an episode of optic neuritis, thinning of the retinal nerve fibre layer, which indicates axonal loss, is observed using optical coherence tomography. The longitudinal course of the retinal changes has not been well characterized. We performed a serial optical coherence tomography study in patients presenting with optic neuritis in order to define(More)
OBJECTIVE CD4 T-cell-dependent macrophage activation directed against a myelin or oligodendrocyte antigen is generally thought to be the mechanism causing myelin destruction in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, areas within expanding MS lesions may exhibit prominent oligodendrocyte loss and apoptosis in the absence of infiltrating lymphocytes. The present(More)
Axonal loss is thought to be the predominant cause of disability in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) is composed largely of unmyelinated axons of retinal ganglion cells, and is accessible to study with optical coherence tomography (OCT), giving a measure of axonal loss. OCT measures of the RNFL thickness (RNFLT) and(More)
The afferent visual pathway is commonly affected in MS. Assessment of the afferent visual pathway using clinical, imaging and electrophysiological methods not only provides insights into the pathophysiology of MS, but also provides a method of investigating potential therapeutic measures in MS. This review summarises the various assessment methods, in(More)
Thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) of clinically unaffected eyes is seen in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It is uncertain when this thinning occurs, and whether ongoing RNFL loss can be measured over time with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Using time-domain OCT, we studied 34 patients with progressive MS (16 primary progressive(More)
OBJECTIVE Acute optic neuritis due to an inflammatory demyelinating lesion of the optic nerve is often seen in association with multiple sclerosis. Although functional recovery usually follows the acute episode of visual loss, persistent visual deficits are common and are probably due to axonal loss. The mechanisms of axonal loss and early features that(More)
OBJECTIVE We examined a cohort of adults with aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody-negative neuromyelitis optica/neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMO/NMOSD) for antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). METHODS We performed a flow cytometry cell-based assay using live human lentivirus-transduced cells expressing full-length surface MOG. Serum(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine whether lateral occipital complex (LOC) activation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) predicts visual outcome after clinically isolated optic neuritis (ON). To investigate the reasons behind good recovery following ON, despite residual optic nerve demyelination and neuroaxonal damage. METHODS Patients with acute ON(More)
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