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BACKGROUND Nrf2 is a key transcriptional regulator of a battery of genes that facilitate phase II/III drug metabolism and defence against oxidative stress. Nrf2 is largely regulated by Keap1, which directs Nrf2 for proteasomal degradation. The Nrf2/Keap1 system is dysregulated in lung, head and neck, and breast cancers and this affects cellular(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of CYP2B6 polymorphisms (according to ethnicity) and the influence of heterozygosity and homozygosity on plasma concentrations of efavirenz and nevirapine. METHODS Following written informed consent, 225 Caucasians and 146 Blacks were recruited from the German Competence Network for(More)
BACKGROUND Tenofovir (TFV) causes kidney tubular dysfunction (KTD) in some patients, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Genetic variants in TFV transporters are implicated; we explored whether ABCC10 transports TFV and whether ABCC10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with KTD. METHODS TFV accumulation was assessed in parental and(More)
BACKGROUND Interaction of antiretrovirals with drug transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and solute carrier organic anion transporter (SLCO) may influence the emergence of viral mutants by altering intracellular drug concentrations. Here we characterize the effect(More)
BACKGROUND Plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA suppression <50 copies/mL is regarded as the optimal outcome of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Current viral load (VL) assays show increased sensitivity, but the significance of RNA detection <50 copies/mL is unclear. METHODS This study investigated the virologic outcomes of(More)
BACKGROUND Nevirapine is metabolized by CYP2B6 and polymorphisms within the CYP2B6 gene partly explain inter-patient variability in pharmacokinetics. The aim of this study was to model the complex relationship between nevirapine exposure, weight and genetics (based on combined analysis of CYP2B6 516G > T and 983T > C single nucleotide polymorphisms). (More)
OBJECTIVE To review the evidence base from randomised controlled trials of combined cardiac resynchronisation therapy and implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy in left ventricular impairment and symptomatic heart failure. DESIGN Bayesian network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases up to June 2006. REVIEW(More)
Daily efavirenz 400 mg (EFV400) was virologically noninferior to 600 mg (EFV600) at 48 weeks in treatment-naïve patients. We evaluated EFV400 and EFV600 pharmacokinetics (NONMEM v. 7.2), assessing patient demographics and genetic polymorphisms (CYP2B6, CYP2A6, CYP3A4, NR1I3) as covariates and explored relationships with efficacy (plasma HIV-RNA (pVL) <200(More)