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BACKGROUND Vitamin K antagonists have been shown to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, many patients are not suitable candidates for or are unwilling to receive vitamin K antagonist therapy, and these patients have a high risk of stroke. Apixaban, a novel factor Xa inhibitor, may be an alternative treatment for such patients. (More)
BACKGROUND Tenofovir is one of the most widely used antiretroviral drugs. Tenofovir undergoes renal clearance by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Although rare, the mechanism by which tenofovir causes renal damage is not well characterized. We have explored the association between kidney tubular dysfunction (KTD) and(More)
As a newly described condition distinct from coma or the vegetative state, minimally conscious state (MCS) is characterised by a threshold level of consciousness, and diagnostic criteria have recently been proposed. In MCS, cognitively mediated behaviour occurs inconsistently, but is reproducible or sustained enough to be differentiated from reflexive(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Certain nuclear receptors (NRs) such as the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane X receptor (PXR) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) mediate induction of some cytochrome P450 enzymes and ABC transporters but conflicting reports exist. The purpose of this study was to assess the reasons for these discrepancies and use a(More)
BACKGROUND Plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA suppression <50 copies/mL is regarded as the optimal outcome of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Current viral load (VL) assays show increased sensitivity, but the significance of RNA detection <50 copies/mL is unclear. METHODS This study investigated the virologic outcomes of(More)
BACKGROUND The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins are a superfamily of efflux pumps implicated as a mechanism for multidrug resistance in cytotoxic chemotherapy, immunosuppressive therapy, HIV and epilepsy. Genetic variation in P-glycoprotein, the product of the ABCB1 gene, is proposed to mediate de novo drug resistance, but associations between(More)
If tuberculosis therapy is to be shortened it is imperative that the sterilising activity of current and future anti-tuberculosis drugs is enhanced. Intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) phagocytosed by macrophages may be a key subpopulation of bacteria that are less readily eliminated by therapy. Here we investigate whether macrophages provide MTB(More)
This study was designed to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on cardiorespiratory fitness and coronary heart disease risk factors. Maximum oxygen consumption (Vo(2 max)), lipid, lipoprotein, and fibrinogen concentrations were measured in 64 previously sedentary men before random allocation to a nonexercise control group, a moderate-intensity(More)
Venous thromboembolic disease is a leading cause of maternal mortality during pregnancy. Early and accurate radiological diagnosis is essential as anticoagulation is not without risk and clinical diagnosis is unreliable. Although the disorder is potentially treatable, unnecessary treatment should be avoided. Most of the diagnostic imaging techniques involve(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of CYP2B6 polymorphisms (according to ethnicity) and the influence of heterozygosity and homozygosity on plasma concentrations of efavirenz and nevirapine. METHODS Following written informed consent, 225 Caucasians and 146 Blacks were recruited from the German Competence Network for(More)