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African descendants and indigenous peoples in Latin America face higher poverty rates and are disproportionately represented among the poor. Per capita income of the white population can be sixty percent higher to twice as high as the per capita income of the African descendant and indigenous populations. Using comparable fiscal incidence analyses for(More)
The Policy Research Working Paper Series disseminates the findings of work in progress to encourage the exchange of ideas about development issues. An objective of the series is to get the findings out quickly, even if the presentations are less than fully polished. The papers carry the names of the authors and should be cited accordingly. The findings,(More)
The transformation of work during China's rapid economic development is associated with a substantial but little noticed reallocation of traditional farm labor among women, with some doing much less and some much more. We study how the work and time allocation of non-migrant women are affected by the out-migration of others in their household. We find that(More)
This argumentative essay at the intersection of media studies, Cultural Studies, and literacy research, frames of PD in the emerging territory of social media and civic engagement. We refer to core principles of PD and to recent reflections on social technologies and participation in design. These are linked to research on designing for participative(More)
The American Journal of Physiology: Renal, Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology (ISSN-0363-6127) is published monthly (two volumes a year) by the American Physiologi-pan. Subscriptions are accepted on a calendar-year basis only. Single Copies and Back Issues: When available, $30.00 each postpaid. Second-class postage paid at Be-thesda, MD and at additional(More)
The practice of safe sex by commercial sex workers is considered to be central in preventing the transmission of AIDS in developing countries. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that sex workers may face large losses in income from using condoms because of a strong preference for condom-free sex among clients. This paper attempts to estimate the(More)
Savedoff for their helpful comments. The views expressed herein are those of the author and do not reflect the official position of the Inter-American Development Bank. Foreword ECI programs represent an important area for government intervention since they have the advantage of " killing two birds with one stone " in the fight against poverty.(More)
The Virtual Science Camp (VSC) is a unique demonstration of synchronous e-learning developed by Mentoring in Medicine (MIM). This paper reports on a pilot offering during the summer of 2012 that taught advanced biological concepts, healthy living and health care career opportunities to medically underserved urban youth. Livestream's interactive video(More)