Andrew Michael Lewis

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Mixtures of polyomaviruses can be present in the central nervous system, the gastrointestinal tract, the genitourinary tract, blood, and urban sewage. We have developed 12 primer/probe sets (four per virus) for real-time, quantitative PCR assays (TaqMan) that can specifically detect BKV, JCV, and SV40 genomes present in mixtures of these viruses. The(More)
The Polyomaviridae have small icosahedral virions that contain a genome of approximately 5,000 bp of circular double-stranded DNA. Polyomaviruses infect hosts ranging from humans to birds, and some members of this family induce tumors in test animals or in their natural hosts. We report the complete nucleotide sequence of simian agent 12 (SA12), whose(More)
The pathogenesis of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in fetal, newborn, and young adult hamsters was studied. Infected newborn hamsters initially developed a persistent viremia and viruria with titers often in excess of 10(4.0) mean infectious doses/0.03 ml of blood or urine. After week 12 two different patterns of infection became evident.(More)
Three SV40 escape mutants were identified by selection in the presence of monoclonal antibodies with neutralizing activity. The VP1 amino acid alterations in these mutants were: (1) K73-->E (in loop BC); (2) D77-->E (in loop BC); (3) K171-->R (in loop EF); and (4) Q175-->H (in loop EF). These residues are clustered in close proximity to each other on the(More)
Simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed hamster cells were relatively resistant to the lytic effect of activated macrophages from animals with chronic intracellular infections. Conversely, SV40-transformed mouse and rat cells and adenovirus 2-transformed hamster cells were highly susceptible to destruction by tumoricidal activated macrophages. The pattern of(More)
Hamster cells infected with highly oncogenic human adenovirus type 12 (Ad12) were resistant to lysis by natural killer cells and macrophages, compared to cells infected with nononcogenic adenovirus type 2 (Ad2). The data suggest that early adenovirus gene expression in hamster cells results in preferential survival of Ad12, compared to Ad2, infected cells(More)
Vaccines and other biological products manufactured in cells contain contaminating residual DNA derived from that production cell substrate, with the amount and form of this DNA depending mainly on the type of vaccine. The potential risk of this cellular DNA has been debated for over 40 years without resolution. Opinions on residual DNA have varied from it(More)
All vaccines and other biological products contain contaminating residual DNA derived from the production cell substrate. Whether this residual cell-substrate DNA can induce tumors in vaccine recipients and thus represent a risk factor has been debated for over 50 years without resolution. As a first step in resolving this issue, we have generated(More)
The mechanisms by which cells spontaneously immortalized in tissue culture develop the capacity to form tumors in vivo likely embody fundamental processes in neoplastic development. The evolution of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells from presumptively normal kidney cells to immortalized cells that become tumorigenic represents an example of neoplastic(More)
Rodent cells immortalized by the E1A gene of nononcogenic adenoviruses are susceptible to lysis by natural killer (NK) cells and activated macrophages. This cytolysis-susceptible phenotype may contribute to the rejection of adenovirus-transformed cells by immunocompetent animals. Such increased cytolytic susceptibility has also been observed with infected(More)