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Much evidence suggests that life originated in hydrothermal habitats, and for much of the time since the origin of cyanobacteria (at least 2.5 Ga ago) and of eukaryotic algae (at least 2.1 Ga ago) the average sea surface and land surface temperatures were higher than they are today. However, there have been at least four significant glacial episodes prior(More)
The natural abundance13C/12C ratios (as δ13C) of organic matter of marine macroalgae from Fife and Angus (East Scotland) were measured for comparison with the species' ability to use CO2 and HCO 3- for photosynthesis, as deduced from previously published pH-drift measurements. There was a clear difference in δ13C values for species able or unable to use HCO(More)
Photosynthesis was studied in four species of red marine macroalgae: Palmaria palmata, Laurencia pinnatifida, Lomentaria articulata and Delesseria sanguinea. The rate of O2 evolution for submersed photosynthesis was measured as a function of incident photon flux density at normal pH and inorganic carbon concentration (pH 8.0, 2 mol m-3), and as a function(More)
The Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa is the largest on record, responsible for over 28,599 cases and more than 11,299 deaths. Genome sequencing in viral outbreaks is desirable to characterize the infectious agent and determine its evolutionary rate. Genome sequencing also allows the identification of signatures of host adaptation, identification(More)
In situations with relatively small numbers of patients with pulmonary blast injury aggressive modern intensive care treatment may allow a return to normal function. The additional effects of radiation poisoning are more difficult to factor in, but new treatments such as colony stimulating factors may improve the outlook for a group with moderate to severe(More)
In October 2014 the UK military deployed to Sierra Leone to provide care for healthcare workers affected by Ebola virus disease. A training package designed by the Army Medical Services Training Centre prepared the deploying personnel in the required infection prevention and control measures. The training used ultraviolet tracer to provide validation of the(More)
Severe sepsis and septic shock is common and frequently fatal. Over the last few years, the primary treatments demonstrated to improve outcome from several major clinical trials have finally emerged. However, translating these recent therapeutic advances to routine clinical practice has proven controversial, and new approaches of additional strategies are(More)
The photosynthetic characteristics for the intertidal macroalga Ascophyllum nodosum were examined in air and water. Under ambient conditions of temperature (10° C) inorganic carbon concentrations (15.63 mmol CO2 m-3 or 2.0 mol TIC m-3) and light (500 μmol photons m-2 s-1) photosynthesis was slightly greater by the exposed alga than by the submerged alga. In(More)
This is a review of meat inspection literature, its history, current concerns and needs for the future. The value and limitations of meat inspection are discussed, along with the possible modifications or changes that are being developed to modernize an increasingly outdated method of safeguarding public health. The potential of on-farm risk assessment of(More)