Andrew M Tomkins

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BACKGROUND HIV-related pneumonia is the main cause of paediatric hospital admissions in southern Africa. We aimed to measure predictors of treatment failure and the cause of non-responsive pneumonia in children admitted to hospital with severe pneumonia in Durban, South Africa. METHODS We investigated 358 children aged 1-59 months who presented with(More)
BACKGROUND Neonatal mortality is the biggest contributor to global mortality of children younger than 5 years, and low birthweight is a crucial underlying factor. We tested the hypotheses that antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation would increase infant birthweight and gestational duration. METHODS We did a double-blind, randomised controlled(More)
Length, height, weight and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) were measured in 4320 children aged between 0 and 59 months, and their socio-economic status was assessed, in 31 villages in Southwest Uganda during March-April 1988. A follow-up survey assessed the mortality of the children during the 12 months following anthropometry. Mortality rates were(More)
OBJECTIVE Few studies have reported on nutritional recovery, survival and growth among severely malnourished children with HIV. This study explores nutritional recovery in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children during inpatient nutrition rehabilitation and 4 months of follow-up. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Lilongwe district, Malawi. (More)
This systematic review and meta-analysis explored HIV prevalence and mortality in children undergoing treatment for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in sub-Saharan Africa. It included all studies reporting on HIV infection within a sample of children with SAM where HIV status was assessed using a blood test and SAM was defined using the WHO, Gomez, Wellcome(More)
BACKGROUND Severe acute malnutrition affects 13 million children worldwide and causes 1-2 million deaths every year. Our aim was to assess the clinical and nutritional efficacy of a probiotic and prebiotic functional food for the treatment of severe acute malnutrition in a HIV-prevalent setting. METHODS We recruited 795 Malawian children (age range 5 to(More)
BACKGROUND Prophylactic zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in children in many developing countries, but its efficacy in children in Africa is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To determine if zinc, or zinc plus multiple micronutrients, reduces diarrhea and respiratory disease prevalence. DESIGN Randomized, double-blind,(More)
We investigated the nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in 355 children hospitalized with severe pneumonia. Of the children, 239 (67.3%) were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 positive; 169 (47.6%) carried S. pneumoniae, 91 (25.6%) carried S. aureus, and 33 (9.3%) carried both. S. pneumoniae carriage was not(More)
Malnutrition predicts an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from infection. Defects in cell-mediated immunity, such as thymic atrophy, impaired cutaneous tuberculin responses, and reduced T cell mitogenesis in vitro, are well characterized. There has been no convincing mechanism proposed for these T cell defects. However, as T cell responses rely on(More)