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Apoptosis pathways activated by death receptors of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family such as Fas, TNFR1, or the TRAIL receptors DR4 and DR5 are implicated in diverse diseases. These are also the best-understood apoptosis pathways and many of our ideas about apoptosis regulation come from studying these pathways. Cell killing from such receptors occurs(More)
In cancer treatment, apoptosis is a well-recognized cell death mechanism through which cytotoxic agents kill tumor cells. Here we report that dying tumor cells use the apoptotic process to generate potent growth-stimulating signals to stimulate the repopulation of tumors undergoing radiotherapy. Furthermore, activated caspase 3, a key executioner in(More)
Although evasion of apoptosis is thought to be required for the development of cancer, it is unclear which cell death pathways are evaded. We previously identified a novel epithelial cell death pathway that works in normal cells but is inactivated in tumor cells, implying that it may be targeted during tumor development. The pathway can be activated by the(More)
Protein kinases and phosphatases are targeted through association with anchoring proteins that tether the enzymes to subcellular structures and organelles. Through in situ fluorescent techniques using a Green Fluorescent Protein tag, we have mapped membrane-targeting domains on AKAP79, a multivalent anchoring protein that binds the cAMP-dependent protein(More)
Around the time of birth, cardiac muscle cells lose the capacity to divide and, from this time on, growth of the heart occurs by hypertrophy where each cells gets bigger. The hypertrophic response is characterized by changes in gene expression including expression of the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and myosin light chain-2 (MLC-2) genes. In cultured(More)
In order to metastasize, tumor cells must adapt to untoward, stressful microenvironments as they disseminate into the systemic circulation and colonize distant organ sites. Autophagy, a tightly regulated lysosomal self-digestion process that is upregulated during cellular stress, has been demonstrated to suppress primary tumor formation, but how autophagy(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and agonistic antibodies against TRAIL death receptors (DR) kill tumor cells while causing virtually no damage to normal cells. Several novel drugs targeting TRAIL receptors are currently in clinical trials. However, TRAIL resistance is a common obstacle in TRAIL-based therapy and limits the(More)
Autophagy has been recognized as an important cellular process for at least 50 years; however, it is only with the recent identification of key regulators of autophagy (Atg genes) that we have begun a mechanistic exploration of its importance in cancer. Recent studies suggest that autophagy may be important in the regulation of cancer development and(More)
DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene. However the function of DCC remains elusive. Previously, we demonstrated that forced expression of DCC induces apoptosis or cell cycle arrest (Chen, Y. Q., Hsieh, J. T., Yao, F., Fang, B., Pong, R. C., Cipriano, S. C. & Krepulat, F. (1999) Oncogene 18, 2747-2754). To delineate the(More)
The EGF receptor (EGFR)-directed monoclonal antibody cetuximab is the only targeted therapy approved for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) but is only effective in a minority of patients. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated as a drug resistance mechanism in multiple cancers, and the EGFR and(More)