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In cancer treatment, apoptosis is a well-recognized cell death mechanism through which cytotoxic agents kill tumor cells. Here we report that dying tumor cells use the apoptotic process to generate potent growth-stimulating signals to stimulate the repopulation of tumors undergoing radiotherapy. Furthermore, activated caspase 3, a key executioner in(More)
Post-natal growth of cardiac muscle cells occurs by hypertrophy rather than division and is associated with changes in gene expression and muscle fiber morphology. We show here that the protein kinase MEKK1 can induce reporter gene expression from the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) promoter, a genetic marker that is activated during in vivo hypertrophy.(More)
Protein kinases and phosphatases are targeted through association with anchoring proteins that tether the enzymes to subcellular structures and organelles. Through in situ fluorescent techniques using a Green Fluorescent Protein tag, we have mapped membrane-targeting domains on AKAP79, a multivalent anchoring protein that binds the cAMP-dependent protein(More)
Although autophagy has been shown to have a clear role as a tumor suppressor mechanism, its role in cancer treatment is still controversial. Because autophagy is a survival pathway activated during nutrient deprivation and other stresses, it is reasonable to think that autophagy can function as a tumor cell survival mechanism activated after cancer(More)
Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) can increase or decrease the amount of cell death in response to various stimuli. To test whether autophagy also controls the characteristics associated with dying cells, we studied tumor cell killing by epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted diphtheria toxin (DT-EGF). DT-EGF kills epithelial and(More)
Autophagy plays a key role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In healthy cells, such a homeostatic activity constitutes a robust barrier against malignant transformation. Accordingly, many oncoproteins inhibit, and several oncosuppressor proteins promote, autophagy. Moreover, autophagy is required for optimal anticancer immunosurveillance. In(More)
Autophagy regulates cell death both positively and negatively, but the molecular basis for this paradox remains inadequately characterized. We demonstrate here that transient cell-to-cell variations in autophagy can either promote cell death or survival depending on the stimulus and cell type. By separating cells with high and low basal autophagy by flow(More)
Excitotoxic insults such as cerebral ischemia are thought to enhance neuronal autophagy, which is then thought to promote neuronal cell death. Excitotoxic insults indeed increase autophagy markers. Notably, however, autophagy markers can be increased either by autophagy induction (as this enhances their production) or by late-stage autophagy inhibition (as(More)
The adapter protein tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)1-associated death domain (TRADD) plays an essential role in recruiting signaling molecules to the TNFRI receptor complex at the cell membrane. Here we show that TRADD contains a nuclear export and import sequence that allow shuttling between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In the absence of export,(More)
Mutations of the mismatch repair genes hMSH2 and hMLH1 have been found in a high proportion of individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC), establishing the link between mismatch repair and cancer. Tumor cell lines that are deficient in mismatch repair develop a mutator phenotype that appears to drive the accumulation of mutations required(More)