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The oxidative folding of large polypeptides has been investigated in detail; however, comparatively little is known about the enzyme-assisted folding of small, disulfide-containing peptide substrates. To investigate the concerted effect of multiple enzymes on the folding of small disulfide-rich peptides, we sequenced and expressed protein-disulfide(More)
The yeast Mcm1 protein is a member of the MADS box family of transcriptional regulatory factors, a class of DNA-binding proteins that control numerous cellular and developmental processes in yeast, Drosophila melanogaster, plants, and mammals. Although these proteins bind DNA on their own, they often combine with different cofactors to bind with increased(More)
The oxidative folding of small, cysteine-rich peptides to selectively achieve the native disulfide bond connectivities is critical for discovery and structure-function studies of many bioactive peptides. As the propensity to acquire the native conformation greatly depends on the peptide sequence, numerous empirical oxidation methods are employed. The(More)
UNLABELLED The structure, assembly, and function of the bacterial flagellum involves about 60 different proteins, many of which are selectively secreted via a specific type III secretion system (T3SS) (J. Frye et al., J. Bacteriol. 188:2233-2243, 2006). The T3SS is reported to secrete proteins at rates of up to 10,000 amino acid residues per second. In this(More)
Serine recombinases promote specific DNA rearrangements by a cut-and-paste mechanism that involves cleavage of all four DNA strands at two sites recognized by the enzyme. Dissecting the order and timing of these cleavage events and the steps leading up to them is difficult because the cleavage reaction is readily reversible. Here, we describe assays using(More)
MCM1 is an essential gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is a member of the MADS-box family of transcriptional regulatory factors. To understand the nature of the protein-DNA interactions of this class of proteins, we have made a series of alanine substitutions in the DNA-binding domain of Mcm1 and examined the effects of these mutations in vivo(More)
A valuable pharmacophore, the 2-aminoimidazole moiety, can be accessed with a variety of substitution patterns through an addition-hydroamination-isomerization sequence (see scheme; R(1),R(4),R(5)=alkyl; R(3)=alkyl, aryl; R(2)=H, alkyl, aryl). The synthesis of the propargyl cyanamide precursors through a three-component coupling enables the preparation of(More)
Conotoxins comprise a large group of peptidic neurotoxins that use diverse disulfide-rich scaffolds. Each scaffold is determined by an evolutionarily conserved pattern of cysteine residues. Although many structure-activity relationship studies confirm the functional and structural importance of disulfide crosslinks, there is growing evidence that not all(More)
Conotoxin genes are among the most rapidly evolving genes currently known; however, despite the well-established hypervariability of the intercysteine loops, the cysteines demonstrate significant conservation, with a site-specific codon bias for each cysteine in a family of conotoxins. Herein we present a novel rationale behind the codon-level conservation(More)
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