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Contemporary descriptions of human intelligence hold that this trait influences a broad range of cognitive abilities, including learning, attention, and reasoning. Like humans, individual genetically heterogeneous mice express a "general" cognitive trait that influences performance across a diverse array of learning and attentional tasks, and it has been(More)
Tobacco dependence is the most preventable cause of death and is a chronic, relapsing disorder in which compulsive tobacco use persists despite known negative health consequences. All currently available cessation agents (nicotine, varenicline and bupropion) have limited efficacy and are associated with high relapse rates, revealing a need for more(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing α6β2 subunits expressed by dopamine neurons regulate nicotine-evoked dopamine release. Previous results show that the α6β2* nAChR antagonist, N,N'-dodecane-1,12-diyl-bis-3-picolinium dibromide (bPiDDB) inhibits nicotine-evoked dopamine release from dorsal striatum and decreases(More)
α6β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed by dopaminergic neurons mediate nicotine-evoked dopamine (DA) release and nicotine reinforcement. α6β2* antagonists inhibit these effects of nicotine, such that α6β2* receptors serve as therapeutic targets for nicotine addiction. The present research assessed the neuropharmacology of(More)
The novel nicotinic receptor (nAChR) antagonist, N,N'-dodecane-1,12-diyl-bis-3-picolinium dibromide (bPiDDB), and its chemically reduced analog, r-bPiDDB, potently inhibit nicotine-evoked dopamine (DA) release from rat striatal slices. Since tobacco smokers self-administer nicotine repeatedly, animal models incorporating repeated nicotine treatment allow(More)
Current therapies for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have varying efficacy in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), suggesting that alternative therapeutics are needed. Developmental exposure to ethanol produces changes in dopamine (DA) systems, and DA has also been implicated in ADHD pathology. In the current study,(More)
Tobacco use during pregnancy continues to be a major problem with more than 16% of pregnant women in the United States continuing to smoke during pregnancy. Tobacco smoke is known to contain more than 4,000 different chemicals, and while many of these compounds have the potential to interfere with proper neurodevelopment, there is direct evidence that(More)
Mecamylamine (3-methylaminoisocamphane hydrochloride) is a nicotinic parasympathetic ganglionic blocker, originally utilized as a therapeutic agent to treat hypertension. Mecamylamine administration produces several deleterious side effects at therapeutically relevant doses. As such, mecamylamine's use as an antihypertensive agent was phased out, except in(More)
It has been suggested that developmental alcohol-induced brain damage is mediated through increases in oxidative stress. In this study, the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured to indicate alcohol-mediated oxidative stress. In addition, the ability of two known antioxidants, melatonin (MEL) and lazaroid(More)
Smoking during pregnancy poses a potential risk to unborn children. The present study examined the long-term effects of early nicotine exposure on the number of pyramidal and granule cells in the hippocampus, and Purkinje cells in the cerebellar vermis. The loss of neurons is the most severe form of brain injury with significant functional implications. In(More)