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Biodiesel is an oxygenated diesel fuel made from vegetable oils and animal fats by conversion of the triglyceride fats to esters via transesterification. In this study we examined biodiesels produced from a variety of real-world feedstocks as well as pure (technical grade) fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters for emissions performance in a heavy-duty truck(More)
l This article provides an up-to-date perspective on the use of anion-exchange membranes in fuel cells, electrolysers, redox flow batteries, reverse electrodialysis cells, and bioelectrochemical systems (e.g. microbial fuel cells). The aim is to highlight key concepts, misconceptions, the current state-of-the-art, technological and scientific limitations,(More)
BiVO(4)/CuWO(4) heterojunction electrodes were prepared using spray deposition of a highly porous bismuth vanadate film onto the surface of an electrodeposited three dimensional network connected copper tungstate. Bilayer BiVO(4)/CuWO(4)/fluorine doped tin oxide glass (FTO) electrodes demonstrated higher photocurrent magnitudes than either with BiVO(4)/FTO(More)
We report the design, synthesis and photoelectrochemical characterization of cobalt phosphate (Co-Pi) oxygen evolution catalyst modified heterojunction photoelectrodes consisting of one-dimensional WO3 nanorods (1D-WO3) and highly porous BiVO4 layers. The 1D-WO3 nanorods were prepared by the decomposition of the tetrabutylammonium decatungstate precursor in(More)
Low-temperature direct methane fuel cells (DMEFCs) offer the opportunity to substantially improve the efficiency of energy production from natural gas. This study focuses on the development of well-defined platinum organometallic complexes covalently anchored to ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) for electrochemical oxidation of methane in a proton exchange(More)
Highly conducive to high conductivity: Polyoxometalates were incorporated in the backbone of a hydrocarbon polymer to produce proton-conducting films. These first-generation materials contain large, dispersed clusters of polyoxometalates. Although the morphology of these films is not yet optimal, they already demonstrate practical proton conductivities and(More)
A new randomly crosslinked polymer is investigated for use as an ion-exchange membrane. The polymer was produced through amination of chlorinated poly(propylene) (PP) with poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and quaternized with iodoethane. The synthesis of the new polymer is confirmed by FTIR 1 H and 13 C NMR. The microstructure of the polymer consists of aggregates(More)
Ionic conductivity in a polymeric fuel cell requires water uptake. Previous theoretical studies of water uptake used idealized parameters. We report a parameter-free prediction of the water-swelling behavior of a model fuel cell membrane. The model polymers, poly(methyl-butylene)-block-poly(vinylbenzyl-trimethylamine), form lamellar domains that absorb(More)
A novel method for the production of homogeneous samples of hollow carbon nanospheres is reported from cellulose, an inexpensive and renewable precursor. The nanospheres are of diameter 50 nm, graphitic wall thickness 5-10 nm, and can easily be produced in several hundred milligram batches. The nanospheres are derived from the laser pyrolysis of a nickel(More)
A facile and simple procedure for the synthesis of semi-transparent and porous SiO2-BiVO4 electrodes is reported. The method involves a surfactant assisted metal-organic decomposition at 500 °C. An earth abundant oxygen evolution catalyst (OEC), cobalt phosphate (Co-Pi), has been used to modify the SiO2-BiVO4 electrode by electrodeposition (ED) and(More)