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Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the "button mushroom" forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes,(More)
A gene cluster encoding the biosynthesis of the fungal tropolone stipitatic acid was discovered in Talaromyces stipitatus (Penicillium stipitatum) and investigated by targeted gene knockout. A minimum of three genes are required to form the tropolone nucleus: tropA encodes a nonreducing polyketide synthase which releases 3-methylorcinaldehyde; tropB encodes(More)
Gene silencing is a powerful tool utilized for identification of gene function and analysis in plants, animals, and fungi. Here, we report the silencing of superoxide dismutase (bcsod1) in Botrytis cinerea through sense and antisense-mediated silencing mechanisms. Because superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a virulence factor, transformants were tested for(More)
Genomic DNA from the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana was used as a template in a PCR with degenerate primers designed to amplify a fragment of a C-methyl transferase (CMeT) domain from a highly reduced fungal polyketide synthase (PKS). The resulting 270-bp PCR product was homologous to other fungal PKS CMeT domains and was used as a probe to(More)
Isolation and sequencing of a PKS gene isolated from xenovulene-producing cultures of Acremonium strictum indicated the presence of NT-, KS-, AT-, PT-, C-MeT- and R-domains; heterologous expression in Aspergillus oryzae resulted in the production of 3-methylorcinaldehyde, demonstrating the role of the terminal reductase domain in product release.
The mechanism of programming of iterative highly reducing polyketide synthases remains one of the key unsolved problems of secondary metabolism. We conducted rational domain swaps between the polyketide synthases encoding the biosynthesis of the closely related compounds tenellin and desmethylbassianin. Expression of the hybrid synthetases in Aspergillus(More)
The biosynthesis of the fungal metabolite tenellin from Beauveria bassiana CBS110.25 was investigated in the presence of the epigenetic modifiers 5-azacytidine and suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid and under conditions where individual genes from the tenellin biosynthetic gene cluster were silenced. Numerous new compounds were synthesized, indicating that the(More)
Large scale fungal genome sequencing has revealed a multitude of potential natural product biosynthetic pathways that remain uncharted. Here we describe some of the methods that have been used to explore them via heterologous gene expression. We focus on filamentous fungal hosts and discuss the technological challenges and successes behind the(More)
The tenS gene encoding tenellin synthetase (TENS), a 4239-residue polyketide synthase nonribosomal-peptide synthetase (PKS-NRPS) from Beauveria bassiana, was expressed in Aspergillus oryzae M-2-3. This led to the production of three new compounds, identified as acyl tetramic acids, and numerous minor metabolites. Consideration of the structures of these(More)