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Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to measure the strength of bonds between biological receptor molecules and their ligands. But for weak noncovalent bonds, a dynamic spectrum of bond strengths is predicted as the loading rate is altered, with the measured strength being governed by the prominent barriers traversed in the energy landscape along the(More)
Carbohydrate--protein bonds interrupt the rapid flow of leukocytes in the circulation by initiation of rolling and tethering at vessel walls. The cell surface carbohydrate ligands are glycosylated proteins like the mucin P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), which bind ubiquitously to the family of E-, P-, and L-selectin proteins in membranes of(More)
Short term exposure of the testis to heat causes degeneration of germ cells. However, the mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. The major objectives of this study were to determine whether the heat-induced loss of germ cells in the adult rat occurs via apoptosis, to document its stage-specific and cell-specific distribution, and to(More)
A simple micromechanical method has been developed to measure the rupture strength of a molecular-point attachment (focal bond) between two macroscopically smooth membrane capsules. In the procedure, one capsule is prepared with a low density coverage of adhesion molecules, formed as a stiff sphere, and held at fixed position by a micropipette. The second(More)
Many biomolecular bonds exhibit a mechanical strength that increases in proportion to the logarithm of the rate of force application. Consistent with exponential decrease in bond lifetime under rising force, this kinetically limited failure reflects dissociation along a single thermodynamic pathway impeded by a sharp free energy barrier. Using a sensitive(More)
Classical cadherins are primary mediators of calcium-dependent cell interactions in multicellular organisms. Organized in five tandemly repeated E-cadherin (EC) modules, the extracellular segments of these membrane-spanning glycoproteins interact homophilically between opposing cells to create highly regulated patterns of attachment stabilized by(More)
A simple micromechanical method has been used to directly measure the force of contraction in single mammalian phagocytes (blood granulocytes) during engulfment of large yeast pathogens. Both the time course of cell spreading over the yeast particle and increase in cell body contractile force were quantitated at three temperatures in the range of 23-35(More)
A measurement of the energy dependence of antineutrino disappearance at the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment is reported. Electron antineutrinos (ν¯(e)) from six 2.9  GW(th) reactors were detected with six detectors deployed in two near (effective baselines 512 and 561 m) and one far (1579 m) underground experimental halls. Using 217 days of data, 41(More)
The objectives of the study were to determine stage-specific changes in the kinetics of germ cell apoptosis induced by administration of exogenous testosterone (T) alone and to examine whether addition of a single testicular heat exposure would enhance the induction of germ cell apoptosis and the suppression of spermatogenesis by T. Adult male rats were(More)
Previous studies in the Sprague-Dawley rat have demonstrated that male reproductive aging is primarily a neuroendocrine dysfunction characterized by decreased pulsatile LH secretion leading to low serum testosterone (T) levels, whereas sperm production is relatively well maintained. In contrast to the Sprague-Dawley rat, the Brown-Norway (BN) rat has a(More)