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The cause of fibrotic diseases, pathologies characterized by excessive production, deposition, and contraction of extracellular matrix, is unknown. To understand the molecular basis of fibrotic disease, it is essential to appreciate how matrix deposition is normally controlled and how this process is dysregulated in fibrogenesis. This review discusses the(More)
The CCN family is a group of six secreted proteins that specifically associate with the extracellular matrix. Structurally, CCN proteins are modular, containing up to four distinct functional domains. CCN family members are induced by growth factors and cytokines such as TGFbeta and endothelin 1 and cellular stress such as hypoxia, and are overexpressed in(More)
In normal adult fibroblasts, transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) induces the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). CTGF independently promotes fibroblast proliferation and matrix deposition, and in acute models of fibrosis promotes cell proliferation and collagen deposition acting synergistically with TGFbeta. In contrast to normal(More)
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is overexpressed in a variety of fibrotic disorders, presumably secondary to the activation and production of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), a key inducer of fibroblast proliferation and matrix synthesis. The CTGF gene promoter has a TGF-beta response element that regulates its expression in fibroblasts(More)
The cause of fibrotic diseases, pathologies characterized by excessive production, deposition, and contraction of extracellular matrix, is unknown. To understand the molecular basis of fibrotic disease, it is essential to appreciate how matrix deposition is normally controlled and how this process is dysregulated in fibrogenesis. This review discusses the(More)
In skin, the profibrotic protein connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is not normally expressed. However, when skin cells are exposed to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), CTGF is induced in fibroblasts but not in epithelial cells. We have begun to investigate the requirements for the fibroblast-selective induction of CTGF by TGF-beta. Previously(More)
BACKGROUND The induction of excess matrix in renal fibrosis seems to be mediated, at least in part, by the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-mediated induction of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in mesangial cells. METHODS By examining CTGF protein and mRNA expression and promoter activity in the presence or absence of TGF-beta or(More)
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has recently received much attention as a possible key determinant of progressive fibrosis and excessive scarring and also of wound repair, neoangiogenesis, bone formation and embryonic development. CTGF is also up regulated in numerous fibrotic diseases, including atherosclerosis and lung-, skin-, pancreas-, liver-(More)
Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) plays a critical role in connective tissue remodeling by fibroblasts during development, tissue repair, and fibrosis. We investigated the molecular pathways in the transmission of TGFbeta signals that lead to features of connective tissue remodeling, namely formation of an alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA)(More)
Fibrosis is one of the largest groups of diseases for which there is no therapy but is believed to occur because of a persistent tissue repair program. During connective tissue repair, "activated" fibroblasts migrate into the wound area, where they synthesize and remodel newly created extracellular matrix. The specialized type of fibroblast responsible for(More)