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Fibrils associated with amyloid disease are molecular assemblies of key biological importance, yet how cells respond to the presence of amyloid remains unclear. Cellular responses may not only depend on the chemical composition or molecular properties of the amyloid fibrils, but their physical attributes such as length, width, or surface area may also play(More)
Although small molecules that modulate amyloid formation in vitro have been identified, significant challenges remain in determining precisely how these species act. Here we describe the identification of rifamycin SV as a potent inhibitor of β(2) microglobulin (β(2)m) fibrillogenesis when added during the lag time of assembly or early during fibril(More)
Amyloid fibril accumulation is a pathological hallmark of several devastating disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, prion diseases, type II diabetes, and others. Although the molecular factors responsible for amyloid pathologies have not been deciphered, interactions of misfolded proteins with cell membranes appear to play important roles in these(More)
Amyloid assemblies are associated with several debilitating human disorders. Understanding the intra- and extracellular assembly of normally soluble proteins and peptides into amyloid aggregates and how they disrupt normal cellular functions is therefore of paramount importance. In a recent report, we demonstrated a striking relationship between reduced(More)
Protein misfolding and aggregation cause serious degenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson, and prion diseases. Damage to membranes is thought to be one of the mechanisms underlying cellular toxicity of a range of amyloid assemblies. Previous studies have indicated that amyloid fibrils can cause membrane leakage and elicit cellular damage, and(More)
In metazoans, the extracellular matrix (ECM) provides a dynamic, heterogeneous microenvironment that has important supportive and instructive roles. Although the primary site of action of ECM proteins is extracellular, evidence is emerging for non-canonical intracellular roles. Examples include osteopontin, thrombospondins, IGF-binding protein 3 and(More)
Natural killer (NK) cell secretory lysosome exocytosis and cytotoxicity are impaired in familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 4 (FHL-4), a disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the SNARE protein syntaxin 11. We show that syntaxin 11 binds to SNAP23 in NK cells and that this interaction is reduced by FHL-4 truncation and frameshift(More)
Fragmentation of amyloid fibrils produces fibrils that are reduced in length but have an otherwise unchanged molecular architecture. The resultant nanoscale fibril particles inhibit the cellular reduction of the tetrazolium dye 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), a substrate commonly used to measure cell viability, to a(More)
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is recognized as a diverse, dynamic, and complex environment that is involved in multiple cell-physiological and pathological processes. However, the isolation of ECM, from tissues or cell culture, is complicated by the insoluble and cross-linked nature of the assembled ECM and by the potential contamination of ECM extracts(More)
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