Learn More
OBJECTIVE Prior investigations have failed to find reliable personality differences in placebo responding. The present study tests the hypothesis that personality and situational variables interact to determine placebo responding. METHODS Optimists and pessimists were randomly assigned to one of three conditions. In the first condition, the participants(More)
Motivational factors receive little attention in current theories of the placebo effect. Reasons for this position are reviewed, and an argument is made for reconsidering the influence of motivation on the placebo effect. The authors hypothesize that nonconscious goals alter reactions to a placebo expectation. Specifically, the authors predict that the(More)
OBJECTIVE A prior investigation found that individuals low in optimism are more likely to follow a negative placebo (nocebo) expectation. The present study tested the hypothesis that individuals high in optimism are more likely to follow a positive placebo expectation. METHODS Individuals (N=56) varying in their level of optimism were randomly assigned to(More)
UNLABELLED Based on prior research identifying dispositional optimism as a predictor of placebo responding, the present study tested the hypothesis that individuals high in optimism would be more likely to respond to a placebo analgesic. Optimists and pessimists were randomly assigned to a placebo expectation condition or a no expectation condition before a(More)
Prior research has found that sex differences in pain are partially due to individual variations in gender roles. In a laboratory study, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of covert gender role cues can also moderate the extent to which women and men experience pain. Specifically, we varied gender role cues by asking male and female participants to(More)
It has been theorized that expectations are an important causal determinant of the placebo effect. Placebo expectations, however, do not always yield placebo effects. In a laboratory study, we tested the hypothesis that one's level of somatic focus moderates the effect of placebo expectations on placebo responding. We also varied whether participants were(More)
Research has shown that persons with mixed hand preference (i.e., who report using their non-dominant hand for at least some manual activities) display an increased tendency to update beliefs in response to information inconsistent with those beliefs. This has been interpreted as reflecting the fact that the left hemisphere maintains our current beliefs(More)
Research on generalized optimism has been primarily correlational in nature. The authors attempted to experimentally manipulate optimism separately from several related constructs (i.e., mood and self-esteem). They examined 2 different optimism manipulations. For the 1st one, participants generated thoughts about positive future events to induce an(More)
Comparative optimism and dispositional optimism are typically studied separately and little is known regarding their unique and combined predictive abilities. We examined how these two types of optimism predict cognitive and affective reactions following unpleasant dental health feedback (Studies 1 and 2) and neutral feedback (Study 2). In Study 1,(More)