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BACKGROUND Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have proved disappointing at reducing airway inflammation in COPD. However, previous studies indicate that low doses of theophylline enhance the activity of a key corticosteroid-associated corepressor protein, histone deacetylase (HDAC)2, which is reduced in COPD. This may account, at least in part, for the relative(More)
Airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass is increased in asthma, and ASM cells from patients with asthma are hyperproliferative and release more IL-6 and CXCL8. The BET (bromo- and extra-terminal) family of proteins (Brd2, Brd3, and Brd4) govern the assembly of histone acetylation-dependent chromatin complexes. We have examined whether they modulate proliferation(More)
We have generated a set of plasmids, based on the mobilizable shuttle vector pMIDG100, which can be used as tools for genetic manipulation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and other members of the Pasteurellaceae. A tandem reporter plasmid, pMC-Tandem, carrying promoterless xylE and gfpmut3 genes downstream of a multiple-cloning site (MCS), can be used(More)
Both COPD and lung cancer are major worldwide health concerns owing to cigarette smoking, and represent a huge, worldwide, preventable disease burden. Whilst the majority of smokers will not develop either COPD or lung cancer, they are closely related diseases, occurring as co-morbidities at a higher rate than if they were independently triggered by(More)
Asthma is caused by both heritable and environmental factors. It has become clear that genetic studies do not adequately explain the heritability and susceptibility to asthma. The study of epigenetics, heritable non-coding changes to DNA may help to explain the heritable component of asthma. Additionally, epigenetic modifications can be influenced by the(More)
Ozone is a potent oxidant and causes airway hyperresponsiveness and neutrophilia. To determine the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, we studied the effect of a p38alpha inhibitor SD-282 (Scios Inc, Fremont, CA USA) on ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and neutrophilia. Balb/c mice received SD-282 (30 or 90 mg/kg i.p) or(More)
Asthma is a chronic disease which causes recurrent breathlessness affecting 300 million people worldwide of whom 250,000 die annually. The epigenome is a set of heritable modifications and tags that affect the genome without changing the intrinsic DNA sequence. These marks include DNA methylation, modifications to histone proteins around which DNA is(More)
Asthma is a chronic allergic disorder characterised by chronic inflammation. The balance of type I and type II (CD4+) T helper cells is of critical importance. In asthma there is an overexpression of T(H)2 cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. The genes encoding these cytokines are located together the same chromosomal region, 5q31.1 in humans. Here we(More)
BACKGROUND In models of COPD, environmental stressors induce innate immune responses, inflammasome activation and inflammation. However, the interaction between these responses and their role in driving pulmonary inflammation in stable COPD is unknown. OBJECTIVES To investigate the activation of innate immunity and inflammasome pathways in the bronchial(More)
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. The causes of asthma and other inflammatory lung diseases are thought to be both environmental and heritable. Genetic studies do not adequately explain the heritability and susceptabilty to the disease, and recent evidence suggests that epigentic changes may underlie these processes. Epigenetics are(More)