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Neurons in the lateral belt areas of rhesus monkey auditory cortex prefer complex sounds to pure tones, but functional specializations of these multiple maps in the superior temporal region have not been determined. We tested the specificity of neurons in the lateral belt with species-specific communication calls presented at different azimuth positions. We(More)
BACKGROUND In models of COPD, environmental stressors induce innate immune responses, inflammasome activation and inflammation. However, the interaction between these responses and their role in driving pulmonary inflammation in stable COPD is unknown. OBJECTIVES To investigate the activation of innate immunity and inflammasome pathways in the bronchial(More)
Airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass is increased in asthma, and ASM cells from patients with asthma are hyperproliferative and release more IL-6 and CXCL8. The BET (bromo- and extra-terminal) family of proteins (Brd2, Brd3, and Brd4) govern the assembly of histone acetylation-dependent chromatin complexes. We have examined whether they modulate proliferation(More)
Asthma is a chronic disease which causes recurrent breathlessness affecting 300 million people worldwide of whom 250,000 die annually. The epigenome is a set of heritable modifications and tags that affect the genome without changing the intrinsic DNA sequence. These marks include DNA methylation, modifications to histone proteins around which DNA is(More)
The immunopathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is based on the innate and adaptive inflammatory immune responses to the chronic inhalation of cigarette smoking. In the last quarter of the century, the analysis of specimens obtained from the lower airways of COPD patients compared with those from a control group of age-matched smokers(More)
INTRODUCTION Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an inflammatory cytokine associated with acute and chronic inflammatory disorders and corticosteroid insensitivity. Its expression in the airways of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a relatively steroid insensitive inflammatory disease is unclear, however. METHODS(More)
In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), oxidative stress regulates the inflammatory response of bronchial epithelium and monocytes/macrophages through kinase modulation and has been linked to glucocorticoid unresponsiveness. Glycogen synthase-3β (GSK3β) inactivation plays a key role in mediating signaling processes upon reactive oxygen species(More)
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