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Population incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is required to assess changes in GBS epidemiology, but published estimates of GBS incidence vary greatly depending on case ascertainment, definitions, and sample size. We performed a meta-analysis of articles on GBS incidence by searching Medline (1966-2009), Embase (1988-2009), Cinahl (1981-2009) and(More)
BACKGROUND In 2006, a mumps outbreak occurred on a university campus despite ≥ 95% coverage of students with 2 doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Using plasma samples from a blood drive held on campus before identification of mumps cases, we compared vaccine-induced preoutbreak mumps antibody levels between individuals who developed mumps (case(More)
The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) is the passive reporting system for postmarketing surveillance of vaccine safety in the United States. The proportion of cases of an adverse event after vaccination that are reported to VAERS (i.e., VAERS reporting completeness) is mostly unknown. Therefore, the risk of such an event cannot be derived from(More)
BACKGROUND Women born in the United States after measles vaccine licensure in 1963 transfer less measles antibody to their infants than do older women. This may result in increased susceptibility to measles among infants. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of maternal year of birth on the risk for measles in infants. METHODS We enrolled 128 unvaccinated(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate race/ethnicity-specific prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in pregnant urban women and to evaluate factors associated with maternal HBsAg testing. METHODS A multicenter, retrospective chart review was conducted of a racially/ethnically stratified random sample of maternal/infant charts of 10 523 women who gave birth(More)
Although scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) since 2005 has contributed to declines of about 30% in the global annual number of human immunodeficiency (HIV)-related deaths and declines in global HIV incidence, estimated annual HIV-related deaths among adolescents have increased by about 50% and estimated adolescent HIV incidence has been relatively(More)
BACKGROUND American infants are at highest risk of severe pertussis and death. We investigated the role of ≥1 pertussis vaccinations in preventing pertussis-related deaths and risk markers for death among infants aged <42 days. METHODS We analyzed characteristics of fatal and nonfatal infant pertussis cases reported nationally during 1991-2008. Infants(More)
To improve early enrollment in HIV care, the Swaziland Ministry of Health implemented new linkage procedures for persons HIV diagnosed during the Soka Uncobe male circumcision campaign (SOKA, 2011-2012) and the Swaziland HIV Incidence Measurement Survey (SHIMS, 2011). Abstraction of clinical records and telephone interviews of a retrospective cohort of(More)
TAHOD population. These considerations highlight the need for the development of confirmatory diagnostic tests for IRS, as well as further research into the epidemiology of IRS in diverse populations. reconstitution syndrome in HIV: validating a case definition and identifying clinical predic-tors in persons initiating antiretroviral therapy.nants of immune(More)
BACKGROUND Ukraine developed Europe's most severe HIV epidemic due to widespread transmission among persons who inject drugs (PWID). Since 2004, prevention has focused on key populations; antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage has increased. Recent data show increases in reported HIV cases through 2011, especially attributed to sexual transmission, but also(More)