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BACKGROUND Ukraine developed Europe's most severe HIV epidemic due to widespread transmission among persons who inject drugs (PWID). Since 2004, prevention has focused on key populations; antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage has increased. Recent data show increases in reported HIV cases through 2011, especially attributed to sexual transmission, but also(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Estimation of key population sizes is essential for advocacy, program planning, and monitoring of HIV epidemics in these populations. A review of recent publications on population size estimation among key populations including MSM, people who inject drugs, and male and female sex workers was conducted to identify and assess current(More)
Although the important influence of a woman's reproductive history on her risk of breast cancer is widely recognized, it is not clear whether this is wholly accounted for by the age at her first full-term pregnancy, or whether there are additional, independent influences of breastfeeding or number of children. To examine the respective contributions to the(More)
Population incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is required to assess changes in GBS epidemiology, but published estimates of GBS incidence vary greatly depending on case ascertainment, definitions, and sample size. We performed a meta-analysis of articles on GBS incidence by searching Medline (1966-2009), Embase (1988-2009), Cinahl (1981-2009) and(More)
Numerous evaluations of the clinical sensitivity and specificity of PCR and serologic assays for Bordetella pertussis have been hampered by the low sensitivity of culture, the gold standard test, which leads to biased accuracy estimates. The bias can be reduced by using statistical approaches such as the composite reference standard (CRS) (e.g., positive if(More)
Numerous reports have documented that serologic methods are much more sensitive than culture for the diagnosis of pertussis in adolescents and adults. However, a standardized serologic test for pertussis is not routinely available to most clinicians, and the serologic test levels or cutoff points correlated with diseases have not been determined. The goal(More)
BACKGROUND In seven studies of the effectiveness of the varicella vaccine conducted since it was licensed, the effectiveness was 71 to 100 percent against disease of any severity and 95 to 100 percent against moderate and severe disease. We investigated an outbreak of varicella in a population of children with a high proportion of vaccinees who were(More)
BACKGROUND Mycoplasma pneumoniae continues to be a significant cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A more definitive methodology for reliable detection of M. pneumoniae is needed to identify outbreaks and to prevent potentially fatal extrapulmonary complications. METHODS We analyzed 2 outbreaks of CAP due to M. pneumoniae. Nasopharyngeal and/or(More)
BACKGROUND Severe pertussis primarily occurs among infants (<12 months of age). Despite high levels of immunization, reported pertussis cases increased in the United States in the 1990s among all age groups, including infants. METHODS To characterize fatal pertussis cases, we analyzed pertussis deaths reported to CDC in the 1990s and compared these with(More)
Because young infants are at highest risk for severe pertussis and death and are also too young to have received the minimal protective series of three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine, we conducted a matched case-control study to assess risk factors for pertussis among young infants during a pertussis outbreak in Chicago in 1993. We(More)