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BACKGROUND Citalopram is a racemic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) indicated for the treatment of depression. Citalopram is a racemate and its serotonin reuptake inhibitory activity resides primarily in the single S-isomer, escitalopram, which is now being evaluated for its potential usefulness in the treatment of depression and other(More)
Microglia are often associated with senile plaques, a primary pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that consists largely of insoluble deposits of beta-amyloid (A beta) protein. Synthetic A beta peptides have been shown to induce neurite dystrophy and neuronal death in vitro when the peptides are assembled into aggregates. We now report that(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication is linked to cellular gene transcription and requires target cell activation. The latent reservoir of HIV-1 in quiescent T cells is thought to be a major obstacle to clearance of infection by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Thus, identification of agents that can induce expression of latent virus(More)
We have previously shown that exposure to beta-amyloid peptides alters microglial activity and viability. It is thought that beta-amyloid peptides induce toxicity in neuronal cultures by destabilizing Ca2+ homeostasis. To investigate the effects of beta-amyloid peptides on intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in cultured microglia, we used Fura-2(More)
Microglia are resident macrophages in the CNS and have been shown to exhibit immune system responses common to other macrophages, including phagocytosis, secretion of superoxide anions, and secretion of regulatory and trophic factors such as interleukin-1. Phagocytosis and oxidative burst by macrophages are often reported to be preceded by an increase in(More)
OBJECTIVE This article presents the results from a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of escitalopram in adolescent patients with major depressive disorder. METHOD Male and female adolescents (aged 12-17 years) with DSM-IV-defined major depressive disorder were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of double-blind treatment with(More)
Senile plaques, the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), are associated with complement components, including C1q. Reactive microglia appear to be involved in the later stages of plaque development. Since tissue macrophages are known to synthesize C1q, cultured rat microglia were examined for C1q immunoreactivity. Anti-C1q staining was(More)
Picrotoxin (1 mg/kg, i.p.), evoked a single generalized seizure in 75% of ovariectomized rats. Pretreatment of matched pairs with silastic implants containing 100% estradiol had an anticonvulsant effect; it protected all rats against such seizures. Implants containing 10% estradiol in cholesterol were less effective in protecting against picrotoxin-induced(More)
Medullary reticular stimulation can activate deep back muscle EMG in urethane-anesthetized female rats. Midbrain central gray stimulation can facilitate brainstem reticular control over deep back muscles. Since these deep back muscles lateral longissimus (LL) and medial longissimus (ML) execute the vertebral dorsiflexion of lordosis behavior, and since the(More)