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In the teleost retina, cone horizontal cells receive extensive innervation from dopaminergic interplexiform cells, and possess dopamine receptors whose activation stimulates adenylate cyclase. Exogenously applied dopamine modifies several aspects of horizontal cell activity in the intact retina, including the responsiveness of these neurons to light and the(More)
Horizontal cells form an electrically coupled network for the transmission of inhibitory signals in the outer retina. In teleosts, horizontal cell coupling is modulated by the neurotransmitter dopamine. Using voltage-clamped pairs of teleost horizontal cells, we have examined the effects of dopamine on the conductance and gating properties of the(More)
Upon exposure to dopamine, cultured teleost retinal horizontal cells become more responsive to the putative photoreceptor neurotransmitter L-glutamate and to its analog kainate. We have recorded unitary and whole-cell currents to determine the mechanism by which dopamine enhances ion channels activated by these agents. In single-channel recordings from(More)
In the vertebrate retina, visual information is segregated into an on channel excited by light increment and a complementary off channel excited by light decrement. We used 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (APB), which selectively blocks the on channel in the retina (29), to determine the contributions of the on and off pathways to response properties of(More)
We have obtained electroretinograms (ERGs) from rabbits and macaque monkeys after vitreal administration of 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (APB), which selectively blocks light-responsiveness in retinal on-bipolar cells. Microelectrode recordings from central visual structures provided an independent measure of the drug effects. In rabbits, APB blocked the(More)
Dopamine, acting via cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP), has been shown to enhance a kainate-gated ionic conductance in white perch retinal horizontal cells in vitro. To determine whether this effect involves stimulation of a protein kinase, kainate-gated currents were observed in cultured horizontal cells that were dialyzed with the catalytic(More)
Current and voltage responses elicited by increasing or decreasing the concentration of L-glutamate or its analog kainate around isolated cone horizontal cells were measured with patch pipettes using the whole cell recording configuration. Application of these photoreceptor transmitter agonists induced inward currents in voltage-clamp experiments (for(More)
We employed diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) to identify regions of focal brain ischemia during the first 3 hours after permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats. Using DWI as early as 30 minutes after the onset of ischemia, it was possible to identify the areas of brain destined to progress to infarction over the next 24 hours in untreated(More)
1. Horizontal optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) was examined in alert rabbits and cats following intravitreal injection of 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (APB), an agent which selectively blocks the light-responsiveness of retinal ON-cells while having little effect on OFF-cells. The retinal actions of APB were assessed independently by electroretinography. 2. In(More)
1. Horizontal cells were enzymatically and mechanically dissociated from the white perch (Roccus americana) retina and voltage clamped using patch electrodes. Steady-state current-voltage (I-V) relationships of solitary horizontal cells were determined by changing the membrane potential in a rampwise fashion. 2. The I-V curve of cells bathed in normal(More)