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Mycobacterium ulcerans, the cause of Buruli ulcer, is an environmental mycobacterium with a distinct geographic distribution. The reasons why only some individuals who are exposed to M. ulcerans develop ulcers are not known but are likely to reflect individual differences in the immune response to infections with this bacterium. In this study, we(More)
CONTEXT The "hygiene hypothesis" has implicated sibship as a marker of infection load during early life and suggests that exposure or reexposure to infections can influence the developing immune system. Viral infection has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVES To evaluate whether exposure to infant siblings in(More)
The risk for development of multiple sclerosis has been associated with human leukocyte antigen-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 (HLA-DR15) genotype, low infant sibling exposure, and high Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen IgG levels. In a population-based case-control study (Tasmania, Australia), we found that the combined effect of HLA-DR15 positivity and low infant sibling(More)
Neural stem cells (NSCs) play a crucial role in the development and maturation of the central nervous system and therefore have the potential to target by therapeutic agents for a wide variety of diseases including neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric illnesses. It has been suggested that antipsychotic drugs have significant effects on NSC activities.(More)
Low back pain is a widespread debilitating problem with a lifetime prevalence of 80%, with the underlying pain mechanism unknown in approximately 90% of cases. We used the painDETECT neuropathic pain screening questionnaire to identify likely pain mechanisms in 343 patients with low back pain with or without leg pain in southeastern England referred for(More)
Cough is a common and distressing symptom that results in significant health care costs from medical consultations and medication use. Cough is a reflex activity with elements of voluntary control that forms part of the somatosensory system involving visceral sensation, a reflex motor response and associated behavioural responses. At the initial assessment(More)
Pain-related emotions are a major barrier to effective self rehabilitation in chronic pain. Automated coaching systems capable of detecting these emotions are a potential solution. This paper lays the foundation for the development of such systems by making three contributions. First, through literature reviews, an overview of how pain is expressed in(More)
INTRODUCTION Observational studies report inverse associations between the use of feather upper bedding (pillow and/or quilt) and asthma symptoms but there is no randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence assessing the role of feather upper bedding as a secondary prevention measure. OBJECTIVE To determine whether, among children not using feather upper(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence for an association between traffic-related air pollution and allergic disease is inconsistent, possibly because the adverse effects may be limited to susceptible subgroups and these have not been identified. This study examined children in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS), potentially susceptible to air pollution effects(More)