Andrew K. Holmes

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In efforts to develop AIDS vaccine components, we generated combinatorial libraries of recombinant human rhinoviruses that display the well-conserved ELDKWA epitope of the membrane-proximal external region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp41. The broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody 2F5 was used to select for viruses whose ELDKWA(More)
Ultrasonic imaging of biofilms in water is difficult due to the very low contrast in acoustic impedance between the biofilm and water. In this paper, biofilms exposed to moist air are scanned through the substrate in order to obtain echoes from the biofilm/air interface. A 50 MHz scanning system was used to scan 1 mm x 1 mm areas of biofilms in a 10 microm(More)
AIMS This study evaluated the effect of protozoan movement and grazing on the topography of a dual-bacterial biofilm using both conventional light microscopy and a new ultrasonic technique. METHODS AND RESULTS Coupons of dialysis membrane were incubated in Chalkley's medium for 3 days at 23 degrees C in the presence of bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and(More)
Ultrasonic compression wave absorption is investigated as a means to monitor the seeded crystallization of copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate from aqueous solution. Simple models are applied to predict crystal yield, crystal size distribution, and the changing nature of the continuous phase. The Allegra-Hawley scattering formulation is used to simulate(More)
Ultrasonic measurements of attenuation versus frequency were made on model systems comprising olive oil, sucrose, and tripalmitin to represent the constituents of chocolate. Corresponding measurements also were made on chocolate flowing in a pipeline at a pilot plant where the temperature, pressure, and temper of the chocolate were precisely controlled and(More)
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