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General anesthetic drugs interact with many receptors in the nervous system, but only a handful of these interactions are critical for producing anesthesia. Over the last 20 years, neuropharmacologists have revealed that one of the most important target sites for general anesthetics is the GABA(A) receptor. In this review we will discuss what is known about(More)
The biology underlying excessive daytime sleepiness (hypersomnolence) is incompletely understood. After excluding known causes of sleepiness in 32 hypersomnolent patients, we showed that, in the presence of 10 μM γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from these subjects stimulated GABA(A) receptor function in vitro by 84.0 ± 40.7% (SD)(More)
A series of 27 analogs of the general anesthetic propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) were examined for general anesthetic activity in Xenopus laevis tadpoles and for the ability to produce enhancement of submaximal GABA responses and/or direct activation at recombinant GABA(A) receptors. Fourteen of the propofol analogs produced loss of righting reflex in the(More)
In mammalian species, inhibition in the brain is mediated predominantly by the activation of GABAA receptors. We report here changes in inhibitory synaptic function and behavior in a mouse line harboring a gain-of-function mutation at Serine 270 (S270) in the GABAA receptor alpha1 subunit. In recombinant alpha1beta2gamma2 receptors, replacement of S270 by(More)
Menthol and related compounds were investigated for modulation of recombinant human gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A), alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2s)) receptor currents expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Sub-maximal (EC(20)) GABA currents were typically enhanced by co-applications of 3-300 microM (+)-menthol (e.g. by approximately 2-fold at 50 microM) >(More)
The advent of whole exome/genome sequencing and the technology-driven reduction in the cost of next-generation sequencing as well as the introduction of diagnostic-targeted sequencing chips have resulted in an unprecedented volume of data directly linking patient genomic variability to disorders of the brain. This information has the potential to transform(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have shown that propofol and sevoflurane enhance the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. However, it is not known whether these two drugs modulate the same molecular pathways. In addition, little is known about receptor function in the presence of both propofol and sevoflurane. The aim of this study was(More)
Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A) )receptors are targets for allosteric modulation by general anesthetics. Mutation of Ser270 within the second transmembrane domain of the GABA(A) receptor alpha subunit can ablate the modulation of the receptor by the anesthetic ether isoflurane. To investigate further the function of this critical amino acid residue,(More)
In gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors, the structural elements that couple ligand binding to channel opening remain poorly defined. Here, site-directed mutagenesis was used to determine if Loop 9 on the non-GABA binding site interface of the beta2-subunit may be involved in GABA(A) receptor activation. Specifically, residues(More)
Previous studies have suggested that two specific amino acid residues in transmembrane segments 2 and 3 of the GABA(A) receptor alpha 2 subunit, Ser270 and Ala291, are critical for the enhancement of GABA(A) receptor function by inhaled anesthetics. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of amino acid substitutions in alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2s(More)