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Predicting rewards and avoiding aversive conditions is essential for survival. Recent studies using computational models of reward prediction implicate the ventral striatum in appetitive rewards. Whether the same system mediates an organism's response to aversive conditions is unclear. We examined the question using fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent(More)
Following the government's decision to place Railtrack into administration (October 2001), attention has focused on what went wrong with privatisation, and how crucial network investment will be financed in future. This paper uses a social cost-benefit analysis framework to assess whether the restructuring and privatisation of British Rail has produced(More)
High-resolution imagery from the IKONOS satellite may be useful for many resource management applications. We assessed the utility of IKONOS imagery for applications in the mid-Atlantic region, including mapping of tree cover, impervious surface areas, and riparian buffer zone variables in relation to stream health ratings. We focused on a 1313-km 2 area in(More)
We report on a study of the invariant mass spectrum of the hadronic system in the decay τ − → π − π 0 ν τ. This study was performed with data obtained with the CLEO II detector operating at the CESR e + e − collider. We present fits to phenomenological models in which resonance parameters associated with the ρ(770) and ρ(1450) mesons are determined. The π −(More)
The voltage-gated Cl(-) channel (CLC) family comprises cell surface Cl(-) channels and intracellular Cl(-)/H(+) exchangers. CLCs in organelle membranes are thought to assist acidification by providing a passive chloride conductance that electrically counterbalances H(+) accumulation. Following recent descriptions of Cl(-)/H(+) exchange activity in endosomal(More)
Two types of canine cardiac myosins, myosin from the free wall of the right ventricle and the free wall of the left ventricle, were compared with canine skeletal muscle myosin from the gastrocnemius. The Vmax values for the ATPase reaction catalyzed by myosin were significantly different among the three types of tissues. For K+-activated myosin the Vmax(More)
BACKGROUND Two distinct genetic mutational pathways characterized by either chromosomal instability or high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H) are currently recognized in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Recently, it has been shown that patients with primary CRC that displays MSI-H have a significant, stage-independent, multivariate(More)
It is hypothesized that due to an abnormal functioning of the reward system patients with schizophrenia form context-inappropriate associations. It has been shown that the dopamine target regions, especially the ventral striatum, are critical in the formation of reward associations. We wanted to examine how the ventral striatum responds as patients learn(More)
Environmental androgens are a group of compounds that to date have received very little attention. In this study, a yeast-based androgen screen (YAS) was used to determine the level of in vitro androgenic activity in seven United Kingdom estuaries. Surface water, sediment pore water, and sediment particulate material solvent extracts collected from(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to environmental stressors can impair children's health and their cognitive development. The effects of air pollution, lead, and chemicals have been studied, but there has been less emphasis on the effects of noise. Our aim, therefore, was to assess the effect of exposure to aircraft and road traffic noise on cognitive performance and(More)