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In mammals, innate reproductive and defensive behaviors are mediated by anatomically segregated connections between the amygdala and hypothalamus. This anatomic segregation poses the problem of how the brain integrates activity in these circuits when faced with conflicting stimuli eliciting such mutually exclusive behaviors. Using genetically encoded and(More)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric disorder defined by the presence of obsessive thoughts and repetitive compulsive actions, and it often encompasses anxiety and depressive symptoms. Recently, the corticostriatal circuitry has been implicated in the pathogenesis of OCD. However, the etiology, pathophysiology and molecular basis of(More)
Diffuse infiltrative invasion is a major cause for the dismal prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Using human glioma stem cells (GSCs) that recapitulate the invasive propensity of primary GBM, we find that EphA2 critically regulates GBM invasion in vivo. EphA2 was expressed in all seven(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to induce angiogenesis when infused continuously into adult rat brain tissue. In addition, VEGF has been shown to enhance permeability in brain vasculature. Adult rats were continuously infused with mouse VEGF into neocortex for up to 7 days. We studied the development of VEGF-induced vasculature in(More)
Chronic mucosal inflammation and tissue damage predisposes patients to the development of colorectal cancer. This association could be explained by the hypothesis that the same factors and pathways important for wound healing also promote tumorigenesis. A sensor of tissue damage should induce these factors to promote tissue repair and regulate their action(More)
NPSR1 is a G protein coupled receptor expressed in multiple brain regions involved in modulation of stress. Central administration of NPS, the putative endogenous ligand of NPSR1, can induce hyperlocomotion, anxiolytic effects and activation of the HPA axis. The role of NPSR1 in the brain remains unsettled. Here we used NPSR1 gene-targeted mice to define(More)
Paraganglia resembling the carotid body have been described in the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) of the rat and the aim of the present study was to determine if this tissue is chemosensitive. We developed a novel isolated SLN preparation superfused with HEPES-buffered Tyrode solution at 35 degrees C in vitro. A glass suction microelectrode was used to(More)
Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) is synthesized by two groups of neurons, one in the subparafascicular area at the caudal end of the thalamus and the other in the medial paralemniscal nucleus within the lateral brainstem. The subparafascicular TIP39 neurons project to a number of brain regions involved in emotional responses, and these(More)
Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4)-Notch signaling is essential for T cell development and alternative thymic lineage decisions. How Dll4-Notch signaling affects pro-T cell fate and thymic dendritic cell (tDC) development is unknown. We found that Dll4 pharmacological blockade induces accumulation of tDCs and CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells)(More)
Differentiation and recruitment of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMacs) are hallmarks of several inflammatory conditions associated with infection, allergy, diabetes, and cancer. AAMacs are defined by the expression of Arginase 1, chitinase-like molecules, and resistin-like molecule (RELM) alpha/FIZZ1; however, the influence of these molecules on(More)