Andrew J. Yates

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What are the rules that govern a naive T cell's prospects for survival or division after export from the thymus into the periphery? To help address these questions, we combine data from existing studies with robust mathematical models to estimate the absolute contributions of thymopoiesis, peripheral division, and loss or differentiation to the human naive(More)
Naïve T cells continually recirculate between blood and secondary lymphoid organs, scanning dendritic cells (DC) for foreign antigen. Despite its importance for understanding how adaptive immune responses are efficiently initiated from rare precursors, a detailed quantitative analysis of this fundamental process has not been reported. Here we measure lymph(More)
Why do parasites harm their hosts? Conventional wisdom holds that because parasites depend on their hosts for survival and transmission, they should evolve to become benign, yet many parasites cause harm. Theory predicts that parasites could evolve virulence (i.e., parasite-induced reductions in host fitness) by balancing the transmission benefits of(More)
It has long been recognized that the T-cell compartment has more CD4 helper than CD8 cytotoxic T cells, and this is most evident looking at T-cell development in the thymus. However, it remains unknown how thymocyte development so favors CD4 lineage development. To identify the basis of this asymmetry, we analyzed development of synchronized cohorts of(More)
The initiation of T-cell responses requires rare precursors to locate a draining lymph node (dLN) and encounter dendritic cells (DCs) presenting peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs). To locate this needle in the haystack rapidly, T cells face an optimization problem-what is the most efficient trafficking strategy for surveillance and(More)
A diverse array of T cells is required for defense against pathogens. The naive CD4 T-cell repertoire reaches its peak diversity by early human adulthood and is maintained until older age. Surprisingly, around age 70, this diversity appears to plummet abruptly. A similar qualitative pattern holds for the CD4 T memory-cell population. We used mathematical(More)
The peripheral T cell repertoire is sculpted from prototypic T cells in the thymus bearing randomly generated T cell receptors (TCR) and by a series of developmental and selection steps that remove cells that are unresponsive or overly reactive to self-peptide-MHC complexes. The challenge of understanding how the kinetics of T cell development and the(More)
Immunological memory depends on a self-renewing pool of antigen-specific T memory (Tm) cells but the homeostatic mechanisms that maintain the size and diversity of the pool are largely unknown. Competition for space or growth factors has been suggested as a mechanism but how these factors themselves are regulated is unclear. We suggest that Tm-cell(More)
Stone analysis has been directed mainly towards establishing and confirming the presence of calcium phosphates, oxalates and a variety of less common constituents such as cystine. Routinely analyses of this sort can be undertaken by the hospital laboratory (10). More sophisticated techniques such as X-ray crystallography have been applied to allow the(More)
Understanding T cell homeostasis requires knowledge of the export rate of new T cells from the thymus, a rate that has been surprisingly difficult to estimate. TCR excision circle (TREC) content has been used as a proxy for thymic export, but this quantity is influenced by cell division and loss of naive T cells and is not a direct measure of thymic export.(More)