Andrew J. Stevens

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OBJECTIVE To assess the validity of case mix adjustment methods used to derive standardised mortality ratios for hospitals, by examining the consistency of relations between risk factors and mortality across hospitals. DESIGN Retrospective analysis of routinely collected hospital data comparing observed deaths with deaths predicted by the Dr Foster Unit(More)
OBJECTIVES To research the lay public's understanding of equipoise and randomisation in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and to look at why information on this may not be not taken in or remembered, as well as the effects of providing information designed to overcome barriers. DESIGN Investigations were informed by an update of systematic review on(More)
BACKGROUND Depression is a major individual and public-health burden throughout the world and is managed mainly in primary care. The most effective strategy to reduce this burden has been believed to be education of primary-care practitioners. We tested this assumption by assessing the effectiveness of an educational programme based on a clinical-practice(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the outcomes of home-based (using the Heart Manual) and centre-based cardiac rehabilitation programmes. DESIGN Randomised controlled trial and parallel economic evaluation. SETTING Predominantly inner-city, multi-ethnic population in the West Midlands, England. PATIENTS 525 patients referred to four hospitals for cardiac(More)
The requirements of the UK Equality Act 2010 and some high profile criticism for using a potentially ageist methodology have prompted the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) to assess the processes and methodology it uses to make appraisal decisions. This paper argues that NICE has established rigorous systems to protect against(More)
The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) is a decision-maker. Where NICE reaches a positive conclusion about the use of a particular health technology (such as a pharmaceutical product) in the National Health Service (NHS), there is a legal requirement for the service to make it available if a patient’s physician considers it(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the relative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a home-based programme of cardiac rehabilitation using the Heart Manual, with centre-based programmes. It also sought to explore the reasons for non-adherence to cardiac rehabilitation programmes. DESIGN An individually randomised trial, with minimisation for age, gender,(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the current methods used by English medical schools to identify prospective medical students for admission to the five year degree course. DESIGN Review study including documentary analysis and interviews with admissions tutors. SETTING All schools (n = 22) participating in the national expansion of medical schools programme in(More)