Andrew J. Murphy

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Homologs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sir2 protein, sirtuins, promote longevity in many organisms. Studies of the sirtuin SIRT3 have so far been limited to cell culture systems. Here, we investigate the localization and function of SIRT3 in vivo. We show that endogenous mouse SIRT3 is a soluble mitochondrial protein. To address the function and relevance(More)
Sir2 is an NAD-dependent deacetylase that connects metabolism with longevity in yeast, flies, and worms. Mammals have seven Sir2 homologs (SIRT1-7). We show that SIRT4 is a mitochondrial enzyme that uses NAD to ADP-ribosylate and downregulate glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity. GDH is known to promote the metabolism of glutamate and glutamine,(More)
In mammals, innate reproductive and defensive behaviors are mediated by anatomically segregated connections between the amygdala and hypothalamus. This anatomic segregation poses the problem of how the brain integrates activity in these circuits when faced with conflicting stimuli eliciting such mutually exclusive behaviors. Using genetically encoded and(More)
MicroRNAs are small RNA species involved in biological control at multiple levels. Using genetic deletion and transgenic approaches, we show that the evolutionarily conserved microRNA-155 (miR-155) has an important role in the mammalian immune system, specifically in regulating T helper cell differentiation and the germinal center reaction to produce an(More)
Angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTLs) play major roles in the trafficking and metabolism of lipids. Inactivation of ANGPTL3, a gene located in an intron of DOCK7, results in very low levels of LDL-cholesterol (C), HDL-C and triglyceride (TAG). We identified another ANGPTL family member, ANGPTL8, which is located in the corresponding intron of DOCK6. A(More)
Colon cancer stem cells are believed to originate from a rare population of putative CD133+ intestinal stem cells. Recent publications suggest that a small subset of colon cancer cells expresses CD133, and that only these CD133+ cancer cells are capable of tumor initiation. However, the precise contribution of CD133+ tumor-initiating cells in mediating(More)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease thought to be mediated by dysfunctional innate and/or adaptive immunity. This aberrant immune response leads to the secretion of harmful cytokines that destroy the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract and thus cause further inflammation. Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a T helper 17 (Th17) T(More)
Uridine 5'-diphosphoglucose (UDP-glucose) has a well established biochemical role as a glycosyl donor in the enzymatic biosynthesis of carbohydrates. It is less well known that UDP-glucose may possess pharmacological activity, suggesting that a receptor for this molecule may exist. Here, we show that UDP-glucose, and some closely related molecules, potently(More)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric disorder defined by the presence of obsessive thoughts and repetitive compulsive actions, and it often encompasses anxiety and depressive symptoms. Recently, the corticostriatal circuitry has been implicated in the pathogenesis of OCD. However, the etiology, pathophysiology and molecular basis of(More)
Chronic mucosal inflammation and tissue damage predisposes patients to the development of colorectal cancer. This association could be explained by the hypothesis that the same factors and pathways important for wound healing also promote tumorigenesis. A sensor of tissue damage should induce these factors to promote tissue repair and regulate their action(More)