Andrew J. Leigh Brown

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Several codon-based methods are available for detecting adaptive evolution in protein-coding sequences, but to date none specifically identify sites that are selected differentially in two populations, although such comparisons between populations have been historically useful in identifying the action of natural selection. We have developed two fixed(More)
As sequence data sets used for the investigation of pathogen transmission patterns increase in size, automated tools and standardized methods for cluster analysis have become necessary. We have developed an automated Cluster Picker which identifies monophyletic clades meeting user-input criteria for bootstrap support and maximum genetic distance within(More)
Genetically diverse pathogens (such as Human Immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1) are frequently stratified into phylogenetically or immunologically defined subtypes for classification purposes. Computational identification of such subtypes is helpful in surveillance, epidemiological analysis and detection of novel variants, e.g., circulating recombinant(More)
Sequential infection with different strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a rarely identified phenomenon with important implications for immunopathogenesis and vaccine development. Here, we identify an individual whose good initial control of viremia was lost in association with reduced containment of a superinfecting strain. Subject(More)
Phylogenies of highly genetically variable viruses such as HIV-1 are potentially informative of epidemiological dynamics. Several studies have demonstrated the presence of clusters of highly related HIV-1 sequences, particularly among recently HIV-infected individuals, which have been used to argue for a high transmission rate during acute infection. Using(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 infects water and land fowl and can infect and cause mortality in mammals, including humans. However, HPAI H5N1 strains are not equally virulent in mammals, and some strains have been shown to cause only mild symptoms in experimental infections. Since most experimental studies of the basis of virulence in(More)
BACKGROUND Termination of renal replacement therapy (RRT) is common in North America and Australia but is considered to be rare in Europe. METHODS In order to review the phenomenon of RRT termination in all patients treated in Newcastle upon Tyne between 1964 and 1993 a retrospective study of clinical case notes was undertaken. In all RRT patients sex,(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the prevalence of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance has continued to decline in infections probably acquired within the United Kingdom. DESIGN Multicentre observational study. SETTING All UK public laboratories conducting tests for genotypic HIV resistance as a part of routine care. PARTICIPANTS 14,584 patients infected(More)
BACKGROUND The immunological response to HIV-1 infection has been postulated to impede superinfection with a second virus; however, a few recent reports have documented cases of HIV-1 superinfection in humans either from different viral clades or from the same clade. OBJECTIVE To differentiate between co-infection and superinfection in a patient harboring(More)
Increased susceptibility to the protease inhibitors saquinavir and amprenavir has been observed in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with specific mutations in protease (V82T and N88S). Increased susceptibility to ritonavir has also been described in some viruses from antiretroviral agent-naive patients with primary HIV-1 infection in association(More)