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Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) hold promise for gene-specific knockdown in diseases that involve RNA or protein gain-of-function effects. In the hereditary degenerative disease myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), transcripts from the mutant allele contain an expanded CUG repeat and are retained in the nucleus. The mutant RNA exerts a toxic gain-of-function(More)
BACKGROUND Thrombin is the most potent agonist of platelets and plays a critical role in the development of arterial thrombosis. Human platelets express dual thrombin receptors, protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4; however, there are no therapeutic strategies that effectively target both receptors. METHODS AND RESULTS Platelet aggregation studies(More)
Sepsis is a deadly disease characterized by considerable derangement of the proinflammatory, anti-inflammatory and coagulation responses. Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), an important regulator of endothelial barrier function and blood coagulation, has been proposed to be involved in the lethal sequelae of sepsis, but it is unknown whether activation(More)
The protease-activated receptors are tethered ligand G protein-coupled receptors that are activated by proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain of the receptor. The archetypic protease-activated receptor PAR1 strongly activates G(q) signaling pathways, but very little is known regarding the mechanism of signal transference between receptor and(More)
Thrombosis associated with the pathophysiological activation of platelets and vascular cells has brought thrombin and its receptors to the forefront of cardiovascular medicine. Thrombin signaling through the protease-activated receptors (PARs) has been shown to influence a wide range of physiological responses including platelet activation, intimal(More)
Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) play important roles in normal and pathological remodeling processes including atherothrombotic disease, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cancer. MMPs have been viewed as matrix-degrading enzymes, but recent studies have shown that they possess direct signaling capabilities. Platelets harbor several MMPs that modulate(More)
Inflammation is traditionally viewed as a physiological reaction to tissue injury. Leukocytes contribute to the inflammatory response by the secretion of cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory compounds, by phagocytotic activity and by targeted attack of foreign antigens. Leukocyte accumulation in tissues is important for the initial response to injury. However,(More)
We describe a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of lethal sepsis using cell-penetrating lipopeptides-termed pepducins-that target either individual or multiple chemokine receptors. Interleukin-8 (IL-8), a ligand for the CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors, is the most potent endogenous proinflammatory chemokine in sepsis. IL-8 levels rise in blood and lung(More)
Expansions of CUG trinucleotide sequences in RNA transcripts provide the basis for toxic RNA gain-of-function that leads to detrimental changes in RNA metabolism. A CTG repeat element normally resides in the 3' untranslated region of the dystrophia myotonica-protein kinase (DMPK) gene, but when expanded it is the genetic lesion of myotonic dystrophy type 1(More)
BACKGROUND The secretory form of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is postulated to play a key role in the retention and aggregation of lipoproteins in the subendothelial space of the arterial wall by converting sphingomyelin in lipoproteins into ceramide. The present study aimed to determine whether the level of circulating ASM activity affects lesion(More)