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BACKGROUND There has been tremendous growth in research in pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) and immune mediated central nervous system demyelinating disorders since operational definitions for these conditions were first proposed in 2007. Further, the International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group (IPMSSG), which proposed the criteria, has expanded(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify the clinical and neuroradiologic features of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in childhood. METHODS A retrospective review was conducted of the medical records and MRI of children who presented to the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne with ADEM between January 1993 and December 1998. RESULTS Of the 31 patients(More)
RNA exosomes are multi-subunit complexes conserved throughout evolution and are emerging as the major cellular machinery for processing, surveillance and turnover of a diverse spectrum of coding and noncoding RNA substrates essential for viability. By exome sequencing, we discovered recessive mutations in EXOSC3 (encoding exosome component 3) in four(More)
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome (AGS) is a genetic encephalopathy whose clinical features mimic those of acquired in utero viral infection. AGS exhibits locus heterogeneity, with mutations identified in genes encoding the 3'-->5' exonuclease TREX1 and the three subunits of the RNASEH2 endonuclease complex. To define the molecular spectrum of AGS, we performed(More)
Paroxysmal tonic upgaze (PTU) of childhood is a distinctive neuro-ophthalmological syndrome of unknown etiology and pathogenesis that is characterized by episodes of sustained upward deviation of the eyes, often with incomplete downward saccades on attempted downgaze. It is generally regarded as having a benign outcome. We observed 16 children with PTU,(More)
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (CIDP) is a rare disease in childhood. We reviewed the clinical characteristics, response to therapy, and long-term prognosis in 13 children (1.5 to 16 years of age) diagnosed with CIDP at Washington University Medical Center, St. Louis, and the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, between 1979 and(More)
The main histological abnormality in congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD) is hypotrophy of type 1 (slow twitch) fibers compared to type 2 (fast twitch) fibers. To investigate whether mutations in RYR1 are a cause of CFTD we sequenced RYR1 in seven CFTD families in whom the other known causes of CFTD had been excluded. We identified compound(More)
Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by muscle weakness and the presence of nemaline bodies (rods) in skeletal muscle. Disease-causing mutations have been reported in five genes, each encoding a protein component of the sarcomeric thin filament. Recently, we identified mutations in the muscle(More)
BACKGROUND Benign acute myositis of childhood is a disorder of midchildhood, typically affecting boys. Symptoms include calf pain and difficulty walking after a viral illness. There is an epidemiologic association with influenza. OBJECTIVES To describe the clinical and laboratory features of benign acute myositis. RESULTS Thirty-eight children (32 boys,(More)
Mutations in the genes that code for collagen VI subunits, COL6A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3, are the cause of the autosomal dominant disorder, Bethlem myopathy. Although three different collagen VI structural mutations have previously been reported, the effect of these mutations on collagen VI assembly, structure, and function is currently unknown. We have(More)