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BACKGROUND Pathophysiologic models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have focused on frontal-striatal circuitry with alternative hypotheses relatively unexplored. On the basis of evidence that negative interactions between frontal foci involved in cognitive control and the non-goal-directed "default-mode" network prevent attentional lapses,(More)
PURPOSE With the advent of tissue bulking agents, in particular dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA), for endoscopic implantation for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), there has been a major shift in the surgical paradigm throughout Europe, and more recently, in the United States. We describe a modification of the technique used for implantation that(More)
PURPOSE Current American Urological Association treatment guidelines for vesicoureteral reflux do not include any recommendations pertaining to endoscopic therapy (subureteral injection of bulking agent). We performed a meta-analysis of the existing literature pertaining to endoscopic treatment to allow comparison with reports of open surgical correction.(More)
The evaluation and management of fetuses/children with antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH) poses a significant dilemma for the practitioner. Which patients require evaluation, intervention or observation? Though the literature is quite extensive, it is plagued with bias and conflicting data, creating much confusion as to the optimal care of patients with ANH. In(More)
Background. Children with hydronephrosis are typically investigated by a combination of diuretic renal scintigraphy, ultrasound, and voiding cystourethrography. Unfortunately, there is no gold standard to assess obstruction. Purpose. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the utility of dynamic contrast enhanced MR urography in the investigation of(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Magnetic resonance urography (MRU) has emerged as a powerful diagnostic tool in the evaluation of the pediatric genitourinary tract. The purpose of this review is to familiarize the reader with the basic techniques, strengths and limitations, as well as the current and potential future applications of MRU in pediatric urology. RECENT(More)
PURPOSE Accepted management of vesicoureteral reflux includes surgical correction or prophylactic antibiotics with the hope for resolution as the child grows. The physician must consider surgery when reflux does not resolve despite uneventful years on prophylactic antibiotics. An alternative is cessation of the antibiotics. We report on the outcome of(More)
PURPOSE We identified the urological anomalies seen in patients with Down syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS We reviewed the literature on Down syndrome and its associated genitourinary pathology. RESULTS Associated defects have been reported throughout the genitourinary tract. The most common renal anomalies seen are renal hypoplasia, obstructive uropathy(More)
INTRODUCTION 2-Octyl cyanoacrylate (2-OCA; Dermabond) is a synthetic tissue adhesive that has proven utility in the closure of minor surgical incisions. Recently, we began using this adhesive for skin closure after circumcision and herein report our experience. TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS A total of 267 patients (mean age 4 years) underwent circumcision (n =(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of our study was to derive time-intensity curves for the renal cortex and medulla from 3D dynamic MR urography and to assess whether these curves are predictive of obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty-nine examinations were performed in 53 pediatric patients and the degree of obstruction assessed using the renal transit time. The(More)