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Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have diverse essential biological functions in all organisms, and in eukaryotes, two such classes of ncRNAs are the small nucleolar (sno) and small nuclear (sn) RNAs. In this study, we have identified and characterized a collection of sno and snRNAs in Giardia lamblia, by exploiting our discovery of a conserved 12 nt RNA processing(More)
In this work, the coupling of liquid nanochromatography to NanoFlow electrospray mass spectrometry was evaluated for the detection of DNA adducts. The NanoFlow ES LC/MS system was compared with the capillary and conventional ES LC/MS system by analyzing an in vitro reaction mixture resulting from the interaction of 2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-monophosphate with(More)
Transport of proteins and lipids between intracellular compartments is fundamental to the organization and function of eukaryotic cells. The efficiency of this process is greatly enhanced through coupling of membranes to microtubules. This serves two functions, organelle positioning and vesicular transport. In this study, we show that in addition to the(More)
Spliceosomal introns are hallmarks of eukaryotic genomes, dividing coding regions into separate exons, which are joined during mRNA intron removal catalyzed by the spliceosome. With few known exceptions, spliceosomal introns are cis-spliced, that is, removed from one contiguous pre-mRNA transcript. The protistan intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia exhibits(More)
Pre-mRNA splicing has been considered one of the hallmarks of eukaryotes, yet its diversity is astonishing: the number of substrate introns for splicing ranges from hundreds of thousands in humans to a mere handful in certain parasites. The catalytic machinery that carries out splicing, the spliceosome, is similarly diverse, with over 300 associated(More)
We study the effect of the exciton fine-structure splitting on the polarization entanglement of photon pairs produced by the biexciton cascade in a quantum dot. Entanglement persists despite separations between the intermediate energy levels of up to 4 microeV. Measurements show that entanglement of the photon pair is robust to the dephasing of the(More)
Here we demonstrate, for the first time, violation of Bell's inequality using a triggered quantum dot photon-pair source without post-selection. Furthermore, the fidelity to the expected Bell state is increased above 90% using temporal gating to reject photons emitted at times when collection of uncorrelated light is more probable. A direct measurement of a(More)
Spliceosomes are assembled in stages. The first stage forms complex E, which is characterized by the presence of U1 snRNPs base-paired to the 5' splice site, components recognizing the 3' splice site and proteins thought to connect them. The splice sites are held in close proximity and the pre-mRNA is committed to splicing. Despite this, the sites for(More)
We investigate the evolution of quantum correlations over the lifetime of a multiphoton state. Measurements reveal time-dependent oscillations of the entanglement fidelity for photon pairs created by a single semiconductor quantum dot. The oscillations are attributed to the phase acquired in the intermediate, nondegenerate, exciton-photon state and are(More)
We demonstrate optical interferometry beyond the limits imposed by the photon wavelength using 'triggered' entangled photon pairs from a semiconductor quantum dot. Interference fringes of the entangled biphoton state reveals a periodicity half of that obtained with the single photon, and much less than that of the pump laser. High fringe visibility(More)