Andrew J. Graham

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OBJECTIVES To determine the grades of recommendations and levels of evidence available if the formal practice of evidence-based medicine is applied to general thoracic surgery. METHODS Three general thoracic surgeons, by consensus, developed a sample of 10 clinically important questions. The first 3 steps of evidence-based medicine (creation of answerable(More)
This longitudinal study of executive function (EF) addressed three questions. These concerned: (i) the validity of EF as a latent construct underpinning performance at ages 4 and 6 on tests of planning, inhibitory control, and working memory; (ii) developmental change in EF across these time-points, which straddled children's transition to school; and (iii)(More)
BACKGROUND The ideal treatment for achalasia permanently eliminates the dysfunctional lower esophageal sphincter, relieving dysphagia and regurgitation; prevents gastroesophageal reflux; and has an acceptable morbidity rate. Controversy exists concerning whether the thoracoscopic Heller Myotomy (THM) or laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) technique is the(More)
Early and severe memory impairment is generally held to be an exclusion criterion for the clinical diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, clinical experience suggests that some patients with otherwise typical FTD can be amnesic from presentation, or even present solely with amnesia. A review of severe amnesia at presentation in patients with(More)
HYPOTHESIS Laparoscopic Heller esophageal myotomy improves esophageal clearance and symptoms of achalasia in the early and late postoperative periods. DESIGN We followed up 98 consecutive patients attending a referral center between February 1, 1994, and July 1, 2000, who underwent laparoscopic myotomy. Operative time, complications, and length of stay(More)
We aimed to devise a rating method for key frontal and temporal brain regions validated against quantitative volumetric methods and applicable to a range of dementia syndromes. Four standardised coronal MR images from 36 subjects encompassing controls and cases with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were used. After initial pilot(More)
The objective was to develop, pretest and validate a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire for potentially curable patients with esophageal carcinoma, for use with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) in order to assess the quality of life associated with the various treatment(More)
BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to combine systematic review and decision analytic techniques to determine the optimal treatment strategy for patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer. METHODS We performed a systematic review of all randomized trials of patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer that included one of the following(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to determine the initial results of laparoscopic esophageal myotomy and anterior fundoplication in the treatment of 26 patients with achalasia. METHODS Operative time, complications, and length of hospitalization were recorded for each patient. Postoperative outcomes were assessed by a standardized patient(More)
Adult intraabdominal surgery performed with the minimal-access technique has created a revolution in surgery. This technique has remained largely unused for pediatric surgical procedures because of concerns regarding its safety and efficacy. Presently, intraabdominal insufflation of CO2 is the preliminary step to performing minimal access surgery. In this(More)