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BACKGROUND A wealth of evidence obtained using mouse models indicates that CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) maintain peripheral tolerance to self-antigens and also inhibit anti-tumor immune responses. To date there is limited information about CD4(+) T cell responses in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). We set out to measure T cell(More)
CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are known to influence T cell responses to tumours. Here we have explored the role of Treg in inhibiting not only adaptive, but also innate immune responses to tumours. To this end we used a Fas ligand (FasL)-expressing melanoma cell line in a mouse model. In this system, innate immunity is sufficient to reject the(More)
This study describes the construction of soluble major histocompatibility complexes consisting of the mouse class I molecule, H-2Db, chemically biotinylated beta2 microglobulin and a peptide epitope derived from the glycoprotein (GP; amino acids 33-41) of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Tetrameric class I complexes, which were produced by mixing(More)
CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) have a fundamental role in maintaining immune balance by preventing autoreactivity and immune-mediated pathology. However this role of Tregs extends to suppression of anti-tumor immune responses and remains a major obstacle in the development of anti-cancer vaccines and immunotherapies. This feature of Treg activity(More)
Currently, our understanding of mechanisms underlying cell-mediated immunity and particularly of mechanisms that promote robust T cell memory to respiratory viruses is incomplete. Interleukin (IL)-6 has recently re-emerged as an important regulator of T cell proliferation and survival. Since IL-6 is abundant following infection with influenza virus, we(More)
BACKGROUND There is indirect evidence that T cell responses can control the metastatic spread of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, an enrichment of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) has also been documented. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether CRC promotes Treg activity and how this influences anti-tumour immune responses and disease progression. (More)
OBJECTIVE There is evidence that natural killer (NK) cells help control persistent viral infections including hepatitis C virus (HCV). The phenotype and function of blood and intrahepatic NK cells, in steady state and after interferon (IFN) α treatment has not been fully elucidated. DESIGN We performed a comparison of NK cells derived from blood and(More)
Flow cytometry with fluorochrome-conjugated peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) tetramers has transformed the study of antigen-specific T-cells by enabling their visualization, enumeration, phenotypic characterization and isolation from ex vivo samples. Here, we demonstrate that the reversible protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) dasatinib improves(More)
Successful immunity requires that a limited pool of αβ T-cell receptors (TCRs) provide cover for a vast number of potential foreign peptide antigens presented by 'self' major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) molecules. Structures of unligated and ligated MHC class-I-restricted TCRs with different ligands, supplemented with biophysical analyses, have(More)
Burnet proposed in the 1950's that the immune system is engaged in identifying and destroying abnormal cancerous cells. This process, termed immune surveillance, has been at the centre of intense debate for decades. Results using immunodeficient mice lend support to the immune surveillance hypothesis. We surmised that immune surveillance would be hampered(More)