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Mitochondrial morphology is determined by a dynamic equilibrium between organelle fusion and fission, but the significance of these processes in vertebrates is unknown. The mitofusins, Mfn1 and Mfn2, have been shown to affect mitochondrial morphology when overexpressed. We find that mice deficient in either Mfn1 or Mfn2 die in midgestation. However, whereas(More)
Many organs consist of tubes of epithelial cells enclosing a central lumen. How the space of this lumen is generated is a key question in morphogenesis. Two predominant mechanisms of de novo lumen formation have been observed: hollowing and cavitation. In hollowing, the lumen is formed by exocytosis and membrane separation, whereas, in cavitation, the lumen(More)
BACKGROUND During Xenopus gastrulation, cell intercalation drives convergent extension of dorsal tissues. This process requires the coordination of motility throughout a large population of cells. The signaling mechanisms that regulate these movements in space and time remain poorly understood. RESULTS To investigate the potential contribution of calcium(More)
Little is known about the dynamics of cancer cell death in response to therapy in the tumor microenvironment. Intravital microscopy of chemotherapy-treated mouse mammary carcinomas allowed us to follow drug distribution, cell death, and tumor-stroma interactions. We observed associations between vascular leakage and response to doxorubicin, including(More)
Many organs consist of a hollow cavity surrounded by a monolayer of epithelial cells. Despite their common structure, such organs form by diverse morphogenetic processes. Three-dimensional culture systems have been useful in analyzing the events. Most processes require a combination of cell proliferation and cell death to produce a hollow cavity. Here, we(More)
The tumor microenvironment consists of stromal cells and extracellular factors that evolve in parallel with carcinoma cells. To gain insights into the activities of stromal cell populations, we developed and applied multicolor imaging techniques to analyze the behavior of these cells within different tumor microenvironments in the same live mouse. We found(More)
Dissemination of epithelial cells is a critical step in metastatic spread. Molecular models of dissemination focus on loss of E-cadherin or repression of cell adhesion through an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). We sought to define the minimum molecular events necessary to induce dissemination of cells out of primary murine mammary epithelium.(More)
During amphibian gastrulation, the embryo is transformed by the combined actions of several different tissues. Paradoxically, many of these morphogenetic processes can occur autonomously in tissue explants, yet the tissues in intact embryos must interact and be coordinated with one another in order to accomplish the major goals of gastrulation: closure of(More)
Collective cell responses to exogenous cues depend on cell-cell interactions. In principle, these can result in enhanced sensitivity to weak and noisy stimuli. However, this has not yet been shown experimentally, and little is known about how multicellular signal processing modulates single-cell sensitivity to extracellular signaling inputs, including those(More)
Many organs consist of a hollow cavity surrounded by a monolayer of epithelial cells. Despite their common structure, such organs form by diverse morphogenetic processes. Three-dimensional culture systems have been useful in analyzing the events. Most processes require a combination of cell proliferation and cell death to produce a hollow cavity. Here, we(More)