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Mitochondrial morphology is determined by a dynamic equilibrium between organelle fusion and fission, but the significance of these processes in vertebrates is unknown. The mitofusins, Mfn1 and Mfn2, have been shown to affect mitochondrial morphology when overexpressed. We find that mice deficient in either Mfn1 or Mfn2 die in midgestation. However, whereas(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were discovered because of their role in amphibian metamorphosis, yet they have attracted more attention because of their roles in disease. Despite intensive scrutiny in vitro, in cell culture and in animal models, the normal physiological roles of these extracellular proteases have been elusive. Recent studies in mice and(More)
Epithelial organs are built through the movement of groups of interconnected cells. We observed cells in elongating mammary ducts reorganize into a multilayered epithelium, migrate collectively, and rearrange dynamically, all without forming leading cellular extensions. Duct initiation required proliferation, Rac, and myosin light-chain kinase, whereas(More)
The microvasculature consists of endothelial cells and their surrounding pericytes. Few studies on the regulatory mechanisms of tumour angiogenesis have focused on pericytes. Here we report the identification of tumour-derived PDGFRbeta (+) (platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta) progenitor perivascular cells (PPCs) that have the ability to(More)
Carcinomas typically invade as a cohesive multicellular unit, a process termed collective invasion. It remains unclear how different subpopulations of cancer cells contribute to this process. We developed three-dimensional (3D) organoid assays to identify the most invasive cancer cells in primary breast tumors. Collective invasion was led by specialized(More)
Mammalian organs are challenging to study as they are fairly inaccessible to experimental manipulation and optical observation. Recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) culture techniques, coupled with the ability to independently manipulate genetic and microenvironmental factors, have enabled the real-time study of mammalian tissues. These systems have(More)
Despite recent progress, the physiological role of Hippo signaling in mammary gland development and tumorigenesis remains poorly understood. Here we show that the Hippo pathway is functionally dispensable in virgin mammary glands but specifically required during pregnancy. In contrast to many other tissues, hyperactivation of YAP in mammary epithelia does(More)
How breast cancers are able to disseminate and metastasize is poorly understood. Using a hyperplasia transplant system, we show that tumor dissemination and metastasis occur in discrete steps during tumor progression. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that loss of the transcription factor GATA-3 marked progression from adenoma to early carcinoma and onset of(More)
FGF signaling is associated with breast cancer and is required for mammary placode formation in the mouse. In this study, we employed a genetic mosaic analysis based on Cre-mediated recombination to investigate FGF receptor 2 (Fgfr2) function in the postnatal mammary gland. Mosaic inactivation of Fgfr2 by the MMTV-Cre transgene enabled us to compare the(More)
Little is known about the dynamics of cancer cell death in response to therapy in the tumor microenvironment. Intravital microscopy of chemotherapy-treated mouse mammary carcinomas allowed us to follow drug distribution, cell death, and tumor-stroma interactions. We observed associations between vascular leakage and response to doxorubicin, including(More)