Andrew J. Evans

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OBJECTIVE The objective of our study was to compare T2-weighted MRI alone and T2 combined with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for the localization of prostate cancer. SUBJECTS AND METHODS T2-weighted imaging and DWI (b value = 600 s/mm2) were performed in 49 patients before radical prostatectomy using an endorectal coil at 1.5 T in this prospective(More)
Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer death for men in the United States. Fortunately, the survival rate for early diagnosed patients is relatively high. Therefore, <i>in vivo</i> imaging plays an important role for the detection and treatment of the disease. Accurate prostate cancer localization with noninvasive imaging can be used to guide biopsy,(More)
The product of the von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL) acts as the substrate-recognition component of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that ubiquitylates the catalytic alpha subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) for oxygen-dependent destruction. Although emerging evidence supports the notion that deregulated accumulation of HIF upon the loss of VHL is crucial(More)
A universal response to changes in cellular oxygen tension is governed by a family of heterodimeric transcription factors called hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Tumor hypoxia, as well as various cancer-causing mutations, has been shown to elevate the level of HIF-1alpha, signifying a critical role of the HIF pathway in cancer development. The recently(More)
The most prevalent mutations associated with the development of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (CC-RCC) are the loss-of-function mutations of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene. These mutations invariably result in an inappropriate accumulation of HIF-alpha due to a failure of VHL as a substrate-recognition component of an E3 ubiquitin ligase(More)
PURPOSE To develop a multi-parametric model suitable for prospectively identifying prostate cancer in peripheral zone (PZ) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-five radical prostatectomy patients (median age, 63 years; range, 44-72 years) had T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), T2-mapping, and dynamic(More)
BACKGROUND Most early stage kidney cancers are renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), and most are diagnosed incidentally by imaging as small renal masses (SRMs). Indirect evidence suggests that most small RCCs grow slowly and rarely metastasize. OBJECTIVE To determine the progression and growth rates for newly diagnosed SRMs stratified by needle core biopsy(More)
Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in prostate cancer is typically detected by immunohistochemistry as single cells in conventional adenocarcinoma. Prostatic NE tumors, such as carcinoid or small cell carcinoma, are rare and large cell NE carcinoma (LCNEC) is described only in case reports. We identified 7 cases of LCNEC and compiled their(More)
BACKGROUND Renal tumor biopsy (RTB) for the characterization of small renal masses (SRMs) has not been widely adopted despite reported safety and accuracy. Without pretreatment biopsy, patients with benign tumors are frequently overtreated. OBJECTIVE To assess the diagnostic rate of RTBs, to determine their concordance with surgical pathology, and to(More)
Tumor hypoxia is associated with disease progression, resistance to conventional cancer therapies and poor prognosis. Hypoxia, by largely unknown mechanisms, leads to deregulated accumulation of and signaling via receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that are critical for driving oncogenesis. Here, we show that hypoxia or loss of von Hippel–Lindau protein—the(More)